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Open access

Xiaoli Liu, Lanxiang Liu, Rui Wang, Xiaojiao Jia, Binbin Liu, Ning Ma, and Qiang Lu

Background

We aimed to investigate early arteriosclerosis and its risk factors in populations with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes.

Materials and methods

A total of 148 participants who did not have diabetes mellitus were assigned to three groups through an oral glucose tolerance test: the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group; the impaired glucose regulation, also known as prediabetes group and the new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus group. The insulin resistance index was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). An ELISA was used to determine the level of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). An arteriosclerosis detector was used to measure the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). The baPWV, ABI, and FGF21 were used to assess early arteriosclerosis.

Results

Significant differences in age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), 2-h insulin (2hINS), and HOMA-IR were found between the NGT group and the prediabetes and new-onset diabetes groups. All of the above, except 2hINS, showed an increasing trend. Moreover, the FGF21 was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the NGT group. The baPWV was higher in the new-onset diabetes group than in the other two groups, but no significant difference was noted in the ABI. Age, SBP, diastolic blood pressure, FPG, 2hPG, and FGF21 were positively correlated with the baPWV. In addition, FPG, SBP, FGF21, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for the baPWV.

Conclusions

Patients with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes may have more significant early arteriosclerosis. The blood glucose level and insulin resistance index may be independent risk factors for early arteriosclerosis.

Open access

Tingting Xia, Hongru Sun, Hao Huang, Haoran Bi, Rui Pu, Lei Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Ying Liu, Jing Xu, Justina Ucheojor Onwuka, Yupeng Liu, Binbin Cui, and Yashuang Zhao

According to its incidence patterns, colorectal cancer (CRC) tends to occur more frequently in males than in females, and the evidence shows that CRC is a hormone-related tumor. These findings indicate that androgen receptor (AR) gene methylation might be important for the regulation of the CRC risk in the different sexes. We used a case–control study to investigate the association between AR methylation in peripheral blood (PBL) and CRC risk. A cohort study was conducted to analyze the effect of AR methylation levels in both PBL and tissue on the prognosis of CRC. AR methylation levels were detected using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM). The results indicate that the hypomethylation of AR was significantly associated with the risk of CRC (OR = 1.869, 95% CI: 1.629–2.141, P < 0.001), and the results remained similar after adjusting for the propensity score (PS) (OR = 1.344, 95% CI: 1.147–1.575, P < 0.001) and PS matching (OR = 1.138, 95% CI: 1.000–1.292 P = 0.049). The hypomethylation of AR was significantly associated with CRC in males (OR = 2.309, 95% CI: 1.200–4.245; P = 0.012) but not females (OR = 1.000, 95% CI: 0.567–1.765; P = 0.999). The methylation status of AR in PBL and tissue does not seem to be associated with prognosis in colorectal cancer (OR = 1.425, 95% CI: 0.895–2.269, P = 0.135; OR = 0.930, 95% CI: 0.674–1.285, P = 0.661). We conclude that AR hypomethylation in PBL is associated with a high risk of CRC and may serve as a biomarker. Further studies involving large sample sizes are needed to validate the results of this study.