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Sofia Maria Lider Burciulescu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
National Institute of Endocrinology CI Parhon, Bucharest, Romania

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Monica Livia Gheorghiu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
National Institute of Endocrinology CI Parhon, Bucharest, Romania

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Andrei Muresan National Institute of Endocrinology CI Parhon, Bucharest, Romania

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Iuliana Gherlan University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
National Institute of Endocrinology CI Parhon, Bucharest, Romania

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Attila Patocs Department of Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Genetics, Clinical Genetics and Endocrinology Laboratory, Semmelweis University National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary

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Corin Badiu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
National Institute of Endocrinology CI Parhon, Bucharest, Romania

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Background

Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) are rare catecholamine-secreting adrenal tumors. Approximately 60–90% of bilateral PHEOs are hereditary. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with bilateral PHEOs and the morbidity rate (malignancy, tumor recurrence and adrenal insufficiency (AI) rate) related to surgery technique and genetic status of the patients.

Results

Fourteen patients (12.5%, nine women, five men) had synchronous or metachronous bilateral PHEOs (out of 112 PHEO patients who underwent surgery between 1976 and 2021). The median age at diagnosis was 32 years (9–76) (three were children). Nine patients (64.2%) presented synchronous bilateral tumors, five (35.7%) contralateral metachronous tumors, 2–12 years after the first surgical intervention; three (21.4%) were metastatic. Median follow-up: 5 years (1–41), IQR 19 months. A total of 78.5% had a germline mutation (eight RET gene with MEN2A syndrome, three VHL syndrome, three not tested). Post-surgery recurrence was noted in 16.6% of patients (one with MEN2A syndrome and metastatic PHEOs, one with VHL syndrome), with similar rates after total adrenalectomy or cortical-sparing adrenal surgery. AI was avoided in 40% after cortical-sparing surgery.

Conclusion

Bilateral PHEOs are usually associated with genetic syndromes. The surgical technique for patients with hereditary bilateral PHEOs should be chosen based on a personalized approach, as they are at higher risk for developing new adrenal tumors requiring additional surgeries.

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Louise Vølund Larsen Department of ORL Head & Neck Surgery and Audiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Delphine Mirebeau-Prunier Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, CHU Angers, Université d’Angers, UMR CNRS 6015, INSERM U1083, MITOVASC, Angers, France

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Tsuneo Imai Department of Breast & Endocrine Surgery, National Hospital Organization, Higashinagoya National Hospital

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Cristina Alvarez-Escola Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, University Hospital ‘La Paz’, Madrid, Spain

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Kornelia Hasse-Lazar Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland

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Simona Censi Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University of Padua, Padua, Italy

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Luciana A Castroneves Department of Endocrinology, Endocrine Oncology Unit, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Akihiro Sakurai Department of Medical Genetics and Genomics, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan

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Minoru Kihara Department of Surgery, Kuma Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan

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Kiyomi Horiuchi Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan

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Véronique Dorine Barbu AP-HP, Sorbonne Université, Laboratoire Commun de Biologie et Génétique Moléculaires, Hôpital St Antoine & INSERM CRSA, Paris, France
Réseau TenGen, Marseille, France

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Francoise Borson-Chazot Réseau TenGen, Marseille, France
Fédération d’Endocrinologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, France

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Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo Réseau TenGen, Marseille, France
Service de Génétique, AP-HP, Hôpital européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
Université de Paris, PARCC, INSERM, Paris, France

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Pascal Pigny Réseau TenGen, Marseille, France
Laboratoire de Biochimie et Oncologie Moléculaire, CHU Lille, Lille, France

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Stephane Pinson Réseau TenGen, Marseille, France
Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire, CHU Lyon, Lyon, France

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Nelson Wohllk Endocrine Section, Hospital del Salvador, Santiago de Chile, Department of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

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Charis Eng Genomic Medicine Institute, Lerner Research Institute and Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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Berna Imge Aydogan Department of Endocrinology And Metabolic Diseases, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

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Dhananjaya Saranath Department of Research Studies & Additional Projects, Cancer Patients Aid Association, Dr. Vithaldas Parmar Research & Medical Centre, Worli, Mumbai, India

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Sarka Dvorakova Department of Molecular Endocrinology, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic

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Frederic Castinetti Aix-Marseille Université, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1251, Marseille Medical Genetics (MMG), Marseille, France
Department of Endocrinology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), Hôpital de la Conception, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de l’hypophyse HYPO, Marseille, France

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Attila Patocs HAS-SE Momentum Hereditary Endocrine Tumors Research Group, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

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Damijan Bergant Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Thera P Links Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

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Mariola Peczkowska Department of Hypertension, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland

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Ana O Hoff Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

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Caterina Mian Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University of Padua, Padua, Italy

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Trisha Dwight Cancer Genetics, Kolling Institute, Royal North Shore Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Barbara Jarzab Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland

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Hartmut P H Neumann Section for Preventive Medicine, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Albert Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

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Mercedes Robledo Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), Madrid, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain

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Shinya Uchino Department of Endocrine Surgery, Noguchi Thyroid Clinic and Hospital Foundation, Beppu, Oita, Japan

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Anne Barlier Réseau TenGen, Marseille, France
Aix Marseille Univ, APHM, INSERM, MMG, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hospital La Conception, Marseille, France

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Christian Godballe Department of ORL Head & Neck Surgery and Audiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark

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Jes Sloth Mathiesen Department of ORL Head & Neck Surgery and Audiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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Objective

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) is a rare syndrome caused by RET germline mutations and has been associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in up to 30% of cases. Recommendations on RET screening in patients with apparently sporadic PHPT are unclear. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of cases presenting with PHPT as first manifestation among MEN 2A index cases and to characterize the former cases.

Design and methods

An international retrospective multicenter study of 1085 MEN 2A index cases. Experts from MEN 2 centers all over the world were invited to participate. A total of 19 centers in 17 different countries provided registry data of index cases followed from 1974 to 2017.

Results

Ten cases presented with PHPT as their first manifestation of MEN 2A, yielding a prevalence of 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4–1.6). 9/10 cases were diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in relation to parathyroid surgery and 1/10 was diagnosed 15 years after parathyroid surgery. 7/9 cases with full TNM data were node-positive at MTC diagnosis.

Conclusions

Our data suggest that the prevalence of MEN 2A index cases that present with PHPT as their first manifestation is very low. The majority of index cases presenting with PHPT as first manifestation have synchronous MTC and are often node-positive. Thus, our observations suggest that not performing RET mutation analysis in patients with apparently sporadic PHPT would result in an extremely low false-negative rate, if no other MEN 2A component, specifically MTC, are found during work-up or resection of PHPT.

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