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Open access

Morten Ruge, Tea Skaaby, Anna-Maria Andersson, and Allan Linneberg


Reduced total hours of sleep and low quality of sleep have been suggested to be associated with low levels of male hormones. Few studies have examined the association between excessive sleep and male reproductive hormones.


To investigate the association of total hours of sleep and quality of sleep with serum levels of total, bioavailable and free testosterone (tT, bT and fT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and dehydroepiandrosteron-sulfate (DHEAS).


Serum levels of tT, SHBG and DHEAS were measured with immunoassays in a cross-sectional population-based study of 2095 males. bT and fT were calculated in accordance with Vermeulens method. Information on total hours of sleep and sleep quality was obtained by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to calculate hormones according to total hours of sleep and the results were expressed as β-estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The adjustment in the multivariable models was constructed taking age, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity into account.


Excessive sleep (>9 h) compared to 7–9 h of sleep was significantly associated with lower tT, bT and fT, but not with SHBG or DHEAS, after multivariable adjustment. These significant associations were also found in our analyses with hormones as continuous variables but no associations were found in our general additive model analyses.


In this cross-sectional study in men, excessive sleep associated with lower levels of male reproductive hormones. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the causal direction of the observed association between excessive sleep and lower male reproductive hormones levels.

Open access

Amalie Carlsson, Kaspar Sørensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Hanne Frederiksen, and Anders Juul


Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents.


This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome.


Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01), lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01), higher leptin (P = 0.03), triglyceride (P < 0.01) and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04), lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02) and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1) compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured.


This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

Open access

Kristian Almstrup, Hanne Frederiksen, Anna-Maria Andersson, and Anders Juul

Puberty marks a transition period, which leads to the attainment of adult sexual maturity. Timing of puberty is a strongly heritable trait. However, large genetic association studies can only explain a fraction of the observed variability and striking secular trends suggest that lifestyle and/or environmental factors are important. Using liquid-chromatography tandem-mass-spectrometry, we measured endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs; triclosan, bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 11 metabolites from 5 phthalates) in longitudinal urine samples obtained biannually from peri-pubertal children included in the COPENHAGEN puberty cohort. EDC levels were associated with blood DNA methylation profiles from 31 boys and 20 girls measured both pre- and post-pubertally. We found little evidence of single methylation sites that on their own showed association with urinary excretion levels of EDCs obtained either the same-day or measured as the yearly mean of dichotomized EDC levels. In contrast, methylation of several promoter regions was found to be associated with two or more EDCs, overlap with known gene–chemical interactions, and form a core network with genes known to be important for puberty. Furthermore, children with the highest yearly mean of dichotomized urinary phthalate metabolite levels were associated with higher promoter methylation of the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 6 gene (TRIP6), which again was mirrored by lower circulating TRIP6 protein levels. In general, the mean TRIP6 promoter methylation was mirrored by circulating TRIP6 protein levels. Our results provide a potential molecular mode of action of how exposure to environmental chemicals may modify pubertal development.

Open access

Stine A. Holmboe, Ravi Jasuja, Brian Lawney, Lærke Priskorn, Niels Joergensen, Allan Linneberg, Tina Kold Jensen, Niels Erik Skakkebæk, Anders Juul, and Anna-Maria Andersson


Calculating the free testosterone level has gained increasing interest and different indirect algorithms have been suggested. The objective was to compare free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone estimated using the linear binding model (Vermeulen: cFTV) and the binding framework accounting for allosterically coupled SHBG monomers (Zakharov: cFTZ) in relation to cardiometabolic conditions.


A prospective cohort study including 5,350 men, aged 30-70 years, participating in population-based surveys (MONICA I–III and Inter99) from 1982-2001 and followed until December 2012 with baseline and follow-up information on cardiometabolic parameters and vital status.


Using age-standardized hormone levels, FAI was higher among men with baseline cardiometabolic conditions, whereas cFTV and cFTZ levels were lower compared to men without these conditions as also seen for total testosterone. Men in highest quartiles of cFTV or cFTZ had lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (cFTV: HR=0.74 (0.49-1.10), cFTZ: HR=0.59 (0.39-0.91)) than men in lowest quartile. In contrast, men with highest levels of FAI had a 74% (1.17-2.59) increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to men in lowest quartile.


The association of estimated free testosterone and the studied outcomes differ depending on algorithm used. cFTV and cFTZ showed similar associations to baseline and long-term cardiometabolic parameters. In contrast, an empiric ratio, FAI, showed opposite associations to several of the examined parameters and may reflect limited clinical utility.