Hyponatremia (HN) is a common condition, with a large number of etiologies and a complicated treatment. Although chronic HN has been shown to be a predictor of poor outcome, sodium-increasing treatments in chronic stable and asymptomatic HN have not proven to increase life expectancy. For symptomatic HN, in contrast, the necessity for urgent treatment has broadly been accepted to avoid the development of fatal cerebral edema. On the other hand, a too rapid increase of serum sodium in chronic HN may result in cerebral damage due to osmotic demyelinisation. Recently, administration of hypertonic saline bolus has been recommended as first-line treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe symptomatic HN. This approach is easy to memorize and holds the potential to greatly facilitate the initial treatment of symptomatic HN. First-line treatment of chronic HN is fluid restriction and if ineffective treatment with tolvaptan or in some patients other agents should be considered. A number of recommendations and guidelines have been published on HN. In the present review, the management of patients with HN in relation to everyday clinical practice is summarized with focus on the acute management.