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Open access

Elizaveta Mamedova, Natalya Mokrysheva, Evgeny Vasilyev, Vasily Petrov, Ekaterina Pigarova, Sergey Kuznetsov, Nikolay Kuznetsov, Liudmila Rozhinskaya, Galina Melnichenko, Ivan Dedov, and Anatoly Tiulpakov


Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a relatively rare disorder among children, adolescents and young adults. Its development at an early age is suspicious for hereditary causes, though the need for routine genetic testing remains controversial.


To identify and describe hereditary forms of PHPT in patients with manifestation of the disease under 40 years of age.


We enrolled 65 patients with PHPT diagnosed before 40 years of age. Ten of them had MEN1 mutation, and PHPT in them was the first manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.


The other fifty-five patients underwent next-generation sequencing (NGS) of a custom-designed panel of genes, associated with PHPT (MEN1, CASR, CDC73, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CDKN1C, CDKN2A, CDKN2C, CDKN2D). In cases suspicious for gross CDC73 deletions multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed.


NGS revealed six pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline sequence variants: four in CDC73 c.271C>T (p.Arg91*), c.496C>T (p.Gln166*), c.685A>T (p.Arg229*) and c.787C>T (p.Arg263Cys); one in CASR c.3145G>T (p.Glu1049*) and one in MEN1 c.784-9G>A. In two patients, MLPA confirmed gross CDC73 deletions. In total, 44 sporadic and 21 hereditary PHPT cases were identified. Parathyroid carcinomas and atypical parathyroid adenomas were present in 8/65 of young patients, in whom CDC73 mutations were found in 5/8.


Hereditary forms of PHPT can be identified in up to 1/3 of young patients with manifestation of the disease at <40 years of age. Parathyroid carcinomas or atypical parathyroid adenomas in young patients are frequently associated with CDC73 mutations.

Open access

Sommayya Aftab, Diliara Gubaeva, Jayne A L Houghton, Antonia Dastamani, Ellada Sotiridou, Clare Gilbert, Sarah E Flanagan, Anatoly Tiulpakov, Maria Melikyan, and Pratik Shah


Hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome is the second most common type of congenital hyperinsulinism caused by an activating GLUD1 mutation.


The aim of this study was to determine the clinical profile and long-term neurological outcomes in children with HI/HA syndrome.


This study is a retrospective review of patients with GLUD1 mutation, treated at two centers in the UK and Russia, over a 15-year period. Different risk factors for neuro-developmental disorders were analysed by Mann–Whitney U test and Fisher’s exact P test.


We identified 25 cases with GLUD1 mutations (12 males). Median age of presentation was 7 months (12 h–18 months). Hypoglycaemic seizures were the presenting feature in 24 (96%) cases. Twenty four cases responded to diazoxide and protein restriction whilst one patient underwent partial pancreatectomy. In total, 13 cases (52%) developed neurodevelopmental manifestations. Epilepsy (n = 9/25, 36%), learning difficulties (n = 8/25, 32%) and speech delay (n = 8/25, 32%) were the most common neurological manifestation. Median age of presentation for epilepsy was 12 months with generalised tonic-clonic seizures being the most common (n = 4/9, 44.4%) followed by absence seizures (n = 3/9, 33.3%). Early age of presentation (P = 0.02), diazoxide dose (P = 0.04) and a mutation in exon 11 or 12 (P = 0.01) were associated with neurological disorder.


HI/HA syndrome is associated with wide spectrum of neurological disorders. These neurological manifestations were more frequent in cases with mutations affecting the GTP-binding site of GLUD1 in our cohort.