Acromegaly is a rare disease due to chronic excess growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) mutations are associated with an aggressive, inheritable form of acromegaly that responds poorly to SST2-specific somatostatin analogs (SSA). The role of pasireotide, an SSA with affinity for multiple SSTs, in patients with AIP mutations has not been reported. We studied two AIP mutation positive acromegaly patients with early-onset, invasive macroadenomas and inoperable residues after neurosurgery. Patient 1 came from a FIPA kindred and had uncontrolled GH/IGF-1 throughout 10 years of octreotide/lanreotide treatment. When switched to pasireotide LAR, he rapidly experienced hormonal control which was associated with marked regression of his tumor residue. Pasireotide LAR was stopped after >10 years due to low IGF-1 and he maintained hormonal control without tumor regrowth for >18 months off pasireotide LAR. Patient 2 had a pituitary adenoma diagnosed when aged 17 that was not cured by surgery. Chronic pasireotide LAR therapy produced hormonal control and marked tumor shrinkage but control was lost when switched to octreotide. Tumor immunohistochemistry showed absent AIP and SST2 staining and positive SST5. Her AIP mutation positive sister developed a 2.5 cm follicular thyroid carcinoma aged 21 with tumoral loss of heterozygosity at the AIP locus and absent AIP staining. Patients 1 and 2 required multi-modal therapy to control diabetes. On stopping pasireotide LAR after >10 years of treatment, Patient 1’s glucose metabolism returned to baseline levels. Long-term pasireotide LAR therapy can be beneficial in some AIP mutation positive acromegaly patients that are resistant to first-generation SSA.
Adrian F Daly, Liliya Rostomyan, Daniela Betea, Jean-François Bonneville, Chiara Villa, Natalia S Pellegata, Beatrice Waser, Jean-Claude Reubi, Catherine Waeber Stephan, Emanuel Christ and Albert Beckers
Adrian F Daly, David A Cano, Eva Venegas-Moreno, Patrick Petrossians, Elena Dios, Emilie Castermans, Alvaro Flores-Martínez, Vincent Bours, Albert Beckers and Alfonso Soto-Moreno
Pituitary adenomas have a high disease burden due to tumor growth/invasion and disordered hormonal secretion. Germline mutations in genes such as MEN1 and AIP are associated with early onset of aggressive pituitary adenomas that can be resistant to medical therapy.
We performed a retrospective screening study using published risk criteria to assess the frequency of AIP and MEN1 mutations in pituitary adenoma patients in a tertiary referral center.
Pituitary adenoma patients with pediatric/adolescent onset, macroadenomas occurring ≤30 years of age, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds and acromegaly or prolactinoma cases that were uncontrolled by medical therapy were studied genetically. We also assessed whether immunohistochemical staining for AIP (AIP-IHC) in somatotropinomas was associated with somatostatin analogs (SSA) response.
Fifty-five patients met the study criteria and underwent genetic screening for AIP/MEN1 mutations. No mutations were identified and large deletions/duplications were ruled out using MLPA. In a cohort of sporadic somatotropinomas, low AIP-IHC tumors were significantly larger (P = 0.002) and were more frequently sparsely granulated (P = 0.046) than high AIP-IHC tumors. No significant relationship between AIP-IHC and SSA responses was seen.
Germline mutations in AIP/MEN1 in pituitary adenoma patients are rare and the use of general risk criteria did not identify cases in a large tertiary-referral setting. In acromegaly, low AIP-IHC was related to larger tumor size and more frequent sparsely granulated subtype but no relationship with SSA responsiveness was seen. The genetics of pituitary adenomas remains largely unexplained and AIP screening criteria could be significantly refined to focus on large, aggressive tumors in young patients.