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Open access

Marieke Stientje Velema, Aline de Nooijer, Ad R M M Hermus, Henri J L M Timmers, Jacques W M Lenders, Olga Husson, and Jaap Deinum


To develop a primary aldosteronism (PA) disease-specific Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) questionnaire.


We included newly diagnosed patients with PA (n = 26), and patients with PA after adrenalectomy (n = 25) or treated with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (n = 25). According to the guidelines for developing HRQoL questionnaires from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC): Phase I: systematic literature review followed by focus group meetings with patients (n = 13) resulting in a list of 94 HRQoL issues. Relevance of issues was rated by 18 other patients and by health care professionals (n = 15), resulting in 30 remaining issues. Phase II: selected issues were converted into questions. Phase III: the provisional questionnaire was pre-tested by a third group of patients (n = 45) who also completed the EORTC core Quality of Life questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Psychometric testing resulted in a final selection of questions with their scale structure.


After the collection and selection of HRQoL issues a provisional questionnaire consisting of 30 items was formed. Of these items, 26 could be assigned to one of the four scales ‘physical and mental fatigue’, ‘anxiety and stress’, ‘fluid balance’ and ‘other complaints’ cumulatively accounting for 68% of variation in all items. All scales had good reliability and validity. There was a significant correlation of all four scales with the QLQ-C30 in most cases.


We developed the first PA-specific HRQoL questionnaire (PA-QoL) using standard, methodologically proven guidelines. After completion of the final validation (phase IV, international field testing), the questionnaire can be implemented into clinical practice.

Open access

Jülide Durmuşoğlu, Henri J L M Timmers, Pepijn van Houten, Hans F Langenhuijsen, Ad R M M Hermus, and Annenienke C van de Ven


Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that patients with adrenocortical carcinoma are at high risk for venous thromboembolism, given the numerous risk factors such as malignancy, abdominal surgery, immobility and hormonal excess. The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively the incidence of venous thromboembolisms after surgical treatment in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.

Materials and methods:

A retrospective study was performed, collecting data from all patients diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma from 2003 to 2018 at the Radboud University Medical Centre, The Netherlands.


In 34 patients, eight postoperative venous thromboembolisms, all pulmonary embolisms, were diagnosed in the first 6 months after adrenalectomy (23.5%). In addition, one patient developed pulmonary embolism just prior to surgery and one patient 7 years after surgery. Five of the eight patients with postoperative venous thromboembolisms presented with symptomatic pulmonary embolism whereas the other three pulmonary embolisms were incidentally found on regular follow up CT scans. Seven of the eight venous thromboembolisms occurred within 10 weeks after surgery. Seven of the eight patients had advanced stage adrenocortical carcinoma and four patients already received low-molecular weight heparin during the development of the venous thromboembolism. There was one case of fatal pulmonary embolism in a patient with a cortisol producing tumor with pulmonary metastases, despite the use of a therapeutic dose thromboprophylaxis.


Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma are at high risk of developing postoperative venous thromboembolisms. Prolonged postoperative thromboprophylaxis could be considered in these patients.

Open access

Marieke S Velema, Evie J M Linssen, Ad R M M Hermus, Hans J M M Groenewoud, Gert-Jan van der Wilt, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Jacques W M Lenders, Henri J L M Timmers, and Jaap Deinum


To develop a prediction model to confirm or exclude primary aldosteronism (PA) in patients with an inconclusive salt loading test (SLT).


Diagnosis in patients with a suspicion of PA can be confirmed using an SLT. In case of inconclusive test results the decision about how to manage the patient is usually based on contextual clinical data.


We included a retrospective cohort of 276 patients in the final analysis.


All patients underwent an SLT between 2005 and 2016 in our university medical center. The SLT was inconclusive (post-infusion aldosterone levels 140–280 pmol/L) in 115 patients. An expert panel then used contextual clinical data to diagnose PA in 45 of them. Together with 101 patients with a positive SLT this resulted in a total of 146 patients with PA. A total of 11 variables were used in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. We assessed internal validity by bootstrapping techniques.


The following variables were independently associated with PA: more intense potassium supplementation, lower plasma potassium concentration, lower plasma renin concentration before SLT and higher plasma aldosterone concentration after SLT. The resulting prediction model had a sensitivity of 84.4% and a specificity of 94.3% in patients with an inconclusive SLT. The positive and negative predictive values were 90.5 and 90.4%, respectively.


We developed a prediction model for the diagnosis of PA in patients with an inconclusive SLT that results in a diagnosis that was in high agreement with that of an expert panel.