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  • Author: A Whatmore x
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P G Murray, D Hanson, T Coulson, A Stevens, A Whatmore, R L Poole, D J Mackay, G C M Black and P E Clayton

3-M syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by pre- and post-natal growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, normal intelligence and radiological features (slender long bones and tall vertebral bodies). It is known to be caused by mutations in the genes encoding cullin 7, obscurin-like 1 and coiled-coil domain containing 8. The mechanisms through which mutations in these genes impair growth are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify novel pathways involved in the growth impairment in 3-M syndrome. RNA was extracted from fibroblast cell lines derived from four 3-M syndrome patients and three control subjects, hybridised to Affymetrix HU 133 plus 2.0 arrays with quantitative real-time PCR used to confirm changes found on microarray. IGF-II protein levels in conditioned cell culture media were measured by ELISA. Of the top 10 downregulated probesets, three represented IGF2 while H19 was identified as the 23rd most upregulated probeset. QRT-PCR confirmed upregulation of H19 (P<0.001) and downregulation of IGF2 (P<0.001). Levels of IGF-II secreted into conditioned cell culture medium were higher for control fibroblasts than those for 3-M fibroblasts (10.2±2.9 vs 0.6±0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01). 3-M syndrome is associated with a gene expression profile of reduced IGF2 expression and increased H19 expression similar to that found in Silver–Russell syndrome. Loss of autocrine IGF-II in the growth plate may be associated with the short stature seen in children with 3-M syndrome.

Open access

R Perchard, L Magee, A Whatmore, F Ivison, P Murray, A Stevens, M Z Mughal, S Ehtisham, J Campbell, S Ainsworth, M Marshall, M Bone, I Doughty and P E Clayton


Higher 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with lower HbA1c, but there are limited UK interventional trials assessing the effect of cholecalciferol on HbA1c.


(1) To assess the baseline 25(OH)D3 status in a Manchester cohort of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (2) To determine the effect of cholecalciferol administration on HbA1c.


Children with T1D attending routine clinic appointments over three months in late winter/early spring had blood samples taken with consent. Participants with a 25(OH)D3 level <50 nmol/L were treated with a one-off cholecalciferol dose of 100,000 (2–10 years) or 160,000 (>10 years) units. HbA1c levels before and after treatment were recorded.


Vitamin D levels were obtained from 51 children. 35 were Caucasian, 11 South Asian and 5 from other ethnic groups. 42 were vitamin D deficient, but 2 were excluded from the analysis. All South Asian children were vitamin D deficient, with mean 25(OH)D3 of 28 nmol/L. In Caucasians, there was a negative relationship between baseline 25(OH)D3 level and HbA1c (r = −0.484, P < 0.01). In treated participants, there was no significant difference in mean HbA1c at 3 months (t = 1.010, P = 0.328) or at 1 year (t = −1.173, P = 0.248) before and after treatment. One-way ANCOVA, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI and diabetes duration showed no difference in Δ HbA1c level.


We report important findings at baseline, but in children treated with a stat dose of cholecalciferol, there was no effect on HbA1c. Further studies with larger sample sizes and using maintenance therapy are required.