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Hong Wang, Jie Cao, Jian-bin Su, Xue-qin Wang, Dong-mei Zhang, and Xiao-hua Wang

Background

Antithrombin 3 (AT3) is a physiological inhibitor of thrombin, and serum AT3 activity was found to decrease at the status of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was presented with an increased risk of thrombotic complications at the background of impaired insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin sensitivity indices and serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with T2D who consented to participate in the study at the Endocrinology Department of Affiliated 2 Hospital of Nantong University from January 2015 to June 2018. All patients received serum AT3 activity test and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Basal and systemic insulin sensitivity were assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index (ISIMatsuda), respectively, from the OGTT. And other relevant clinical data were also collected.

Results

Total of 1612 patients with T2D were enrolled in the study, with a mean age of 58.67 ± 13.09 years and a median diabetes duration of 6 years (interquartile range, 1–10 years). Across ascending quartiles of serum AT3 activity, HOMA-IR progressively decreased, while ISIMatsuda progressively increased (all P for trend < 0.001). Moreover, serum AT3 activity was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = −0.189, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with ISIMatsuda (r = 0.221, P < 0.001). After adjusting for other metabolic risk factors, hemostatic parameters and glucose-lowering therapies by multivariate linear regression analysis, HOMA-IR (β = −0.185, t = −5.960, P < 0.001) and ISIMatsuda (β = 0.197, t = 6.632, P < 0.001) remained independently associated with the serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D, respectively.

Conclusions

Reduced basal and systemic insulin sensitivity are associated with decreased serum AT3 activity in patients with T2D.