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Open access

A J Varewijck, A J van der Lely, S J C M M Neggers, S W J Lamberts, L J Hofland, and J A M J L Janssen

The value of measuring IGF1 bioactivity in active acromegaly is unknown. Soluble Klotho (S-Klotho) level is elevated in active acromegaly and it has been suggested that S-Klotho can inhibit activation of the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R). A cross-sectional study was carried out in 15 patients with active acromegaly based on clinical presentation, unsuppressed GH during an oral glucose tolerance test, and elevated total IGF1 levels (>+2 s.d.). Total IGF1 was measured by immunoassay, IGF1 bioactivity by the IGF1R kinase receptor activation assay and S-Klotho by an ELISA. Quality of Life (QoL) was assessed by Acromegaly QoL (AcroQoL) Questionnaire and Short-Form-36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Out of 15 patients, nine had IGF1 bioactivity values within the reference range. S-Klotho was higher in active acromegaly compared with controls. Age-adjusted S-Klotho was significantly related to IGF1 bioactivity (r=0.75, P=0.002) and to total IGF1 (r=0.62, P=0.02). IGF1 bioactivity and total IGF1 were inversely related to the physical component summary of the SF-36 (r=−0.78, P=0.002 vs r=−0.60, P=0.03). Moreover, IGF1 bioactivity, but not total IGF1, was significantly inversely related to the physical dimension of the AcroQoL Questionnaire (r=−0.60, P=0.02 vs r=−0.37, P=0.19). In contrast to total IGF1, IGF1 bioactivity was within the reference range in a considerable number of subjects with active acromegaly. Elevated S-Klotho levels may have reduced IGF1 bioactivity. Moreover, IGF1 bioactivity was more strongly related to physical measures of QoL than total IGF1, suggesting that IGF1 bioactivity may better reflect physical limitations perceived in active acromegaly.

Open access

V G Pluimakers, M van Waas, C W N Looman, M P de Maat, R de Jonge, P Delhanty, M Huisman, F U S Mattace-Raso, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, and S J C M M Neggers


Augmented survival of childhood nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma has increased long-term side effects such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Risk stratification is difficult after abdominal radiation because waist circumference underestimates adiposity. We aimed to develop a strategy for determining MetS in irradiated survivors using an integrated biomarker profile and vascular ultrasonography.


The NCEP-ATPIII MetS-components, 14 additional serum biomarkers and 9 vascular measurements were assessed in a single-centre cohort of childhood nephroblastoma (n = 67) and neuroblastoma (n = 36) survivors and controls (n = 61). Multivariable regression models were used to study treatment effects. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to study all biomarkers in a combined analysis, to identify patterns and correlations.


After 27.5 years of follow-up, MetS occurred more often in survivors (14%) than controls (3%). Abdominal radiotherapy and nephrectomy, to a lesser extent, were associated with MetS and separate components and with several biomarker abnormalities. PCA of biomarkers revealed a pattern on PC1 from favourable lipid markers (HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin) towards unfavourable markers (triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, apoB, uric acid). Abdominal radiotherapy was associated with the unfavourable biomarker profile (β = 1.45, P = 0.001). Vascular measurements were not of added diagnostic value.


Long-term childhood nephro- and neuroblastoma survivors frequently develop MetS. Additional assessment of biomarkers identified in PCA – adiponectin, LDL, apoB, and uric acid – may be used especially in abdominally irradiated survivors, to classify MetS as alternative for waist circumference. Vascular ultrasonography was not of added value.

Open access

Gudmundur Johannsson, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Peter E Clayton, Catherine S Choong, David Clemmons, Mehul Dattani, Jan Frystyk, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Reiko Horikawa, Anders Juul, John J Kopchick, Xiaoping Luo, Sebastian Neggers, Irene Netchine, Daniel S Olsson, Sally Radovick, Ron Rosenfeld, Richard J Ross, Katharina Schilbach, Paulo Solberg, Christian Strasburger, Peter Trainer, Kevin C J Yuen, Kerstin Wickstrom, Jens O L Jorgensen, and on behalf of the Growth Hormone Research Society


The Growth Hormone Research Society (GRS) convened a Workshop in 2017 to evaluate clinical endpoints, surrogate endpoints and biomarkers during GH treatment of children and adults and in patients with acromegaly.


GRS invited 34 international experts including clinicians, basic scientists, a regulatory scientist and physicians from the pharmaceutical industry.


Current literature was reviewed and expert opinion was utilized to establish the state of the art and identify current gaps and unmet needs.

Consensus process

Following plenary presentations, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. The attendees re-convened after each breakout session to share the group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a document that was subsequently discussed and revised by participants. This was edited further and circulated for final review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies were not part of the writing process.


The clinical endpoint in paediatric GH treatment is adult height with height velocity as a surrogate endpoint. Increased life expectancy is the ideal but unfeasible clinical endpoint of GH treatment in adult GH-deficient patients (GHDA) and in patients with acromegaly. The pragmatic clinical endpoints in GHDA include normalization of body composition and quality of life, whereas symptom relief and reversal of comorbidities are used in acromegaly. Serum IGF-I is widely used as a biomarker, even though it correlates weakly with clinical endpoints in GH treatment, whereas in acromegaly, normalization of IGF-I may be related to improvement in mortality. There is an unmet need for novel biomarkers that capture the pleiotropic actions of GH in relation to GH treatment and in patients with acromegaly.