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  • Author: Antonio Novelli x
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Luca Persani Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy

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Martine Cools Departments of Internal Medicine and Paediatrics and of Paediatric Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Stamatina Ioakim Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

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S Faisal Ahmed Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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Silvia Andonova National Genetic Laboratory, UHOG “Maichin dom", Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria

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Magdalena Avbelj-Stefanija Department for Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Federico Baronio Pediatric Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy

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Jerome Bouligand Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm UMRS1185 & Service de Génétique Moléculaire, Pharmacogénétique et Hormonologie, Hôpital Bicêtre, France

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Hennie T Bruggenwirth Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Justin H Davies Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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Elfride De Baere Departments of Internal Medicine and Paediatrics and of Paediatric Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Iveta Dzivite-Krisane Children’s University Hospital, Riga, Latvia

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Paula Fernandez-Alvarez Department of Clinical and Molecular Genetics, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain

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Alexander Gheldof Center for Medical Genetics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

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Claudia Giavoli Unit of Endocrinology, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

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Claus H Gravholt Departments of Endocrinology, of Clinical Medicine and of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

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Olaf Hiort University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, and University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

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Paul-Martin Holterhus University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany

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Anders Juul Departments of Growth and Reproduction and of Clinical Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital – Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Csilla Krausz Endocrinology and Andrology Units, University Hospital of Careggi and Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Kristina Lagerstedt-Robinson Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Laboratory, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Ruth McGowan Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
West of Scotland Centre for Genomic Medicine, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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Uta Neumann Charité Medicine University, Berlin, Germany

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Antonio Novelli Translational Cytogenomics Research Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy

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Xavier Peyrassol Universitè Libre di Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium

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Leonidas A Phylactou Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus

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Julia Rohayem University Hospital Münster, Munster, Germany

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Philippe Touraine Center for Rare Endocrine and Gynecological Disorders, Department of endocrinology and reproductive Medicine, Hospital Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France

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Dineke Westra Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

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Valeria Vezzoli Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy

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Raffaella Rossetti Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy

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Differences of sex development and maturation (SDM) represent a heterogeneous puzzle of rare conditions with a large genetic component whose management and treatment could be improved by an accurate classification of underlying molecular conditions, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) should represent the most appropriate approach. Therefore, we conducted a survey dedicated to the use and potential outcomes of NGS for SDM disorders diagnosis among the 53 health care providers (HCP) of the European Reference Network for rare endocrine conditions. The response rate was 49% with a total of 26 HCPs from 13 countries. All HCPs, except 1, performed NGS investigations for SDM disorders on 6720 patients, 3764 (56%) with differences of sex development (DSD), including 811 unexplained primary ovarian insufficiency, and 2956 (44%) with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). The approaches varied from targeted analysis of custom gene panels (range: 11–490 genes) in 81.5% of cases or whole exome sequencing with the extraction of a virtual panel in the remaining cases. These analyses were performed for diagnostic purposes in 21 HCPs, supported by the National Health Systems in 16 cases. The likelihood of finding a variant ranged between 7 and 60%, mainly depending upon the number of analysed genes or criteria used for reporting, most HCPs also reporting variants of uncertain significance. These data illustrate the status of genetic diagnosis of DSD and CHH across Europe. In most countries, these analyses are performed for diagnostic purposes, yielding highly variable results, thus suggesting the need for harmonization and general improvements of NGS approaches.

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