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Clarissa Souza Barthem Laboratório de Adaptações Metabólicas, Programa de Bioquímica e Biofísica Celular, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Camila Lüdke Rossetti Laboratório de Adaptações Metabólicas, Programa de Bioquímica e Biofísica Celular, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina Doris Rosenthal, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Denise P Carvalho Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina Doris Rosenthal, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Wagner Seixas da-Silva Laboratório de Adaptações Metabólicas, Programa de Bioquímica e Biofísica Celular, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Estradiol has been used to prevent metabolic diseases, bone loss and menopausal symptoms, even though it might raise the risk of cancer. Metformin is usually prescribed for type 2 diabetes mellitus and lowers food intake and body mass while improving insulin resistance and the lipid profile. Ovariectomized rats show increased body mass, insulin resistance and changes in the lipid profile. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate whether metformin could prevent the early metabolic dysfunction that occurs early after ovariectomy. Female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: SHAM-operated (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized + estradiol (OVX + E2) and ovariectomized + metformin (OVX + M). Treatment with metformin diminished approximately 50% of the mass gain observed in ovariectomized animals and reduced both the serum and hepatic triglyceride levels. The hepatic levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) decreased after OVX, and the expression of the inactive form of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was also reduced. Metformin was able to increase the levels of pAMPK in the liver of OVX animals, sustaining the balance between the inactive and total forms of ACC. Estradiol effects were similar to those of metformin but with different proportions. Our results suggest that metformin ameliorates the early alterations of metabolic parameters and rescues hepatic AMPK phosphorylation and ACC inactivation observed in ovariectomized rats.

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Panagiotis Anagnostis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Irene Lambrinoudaki 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece

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John C Stevenson National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

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Dimitrios G Goulis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of major concern in women entering menopause. The changing hormonal milieu predisposes them to increased CVD risk, due to a constellation of risk factors, such as visceral obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysregulation in glucose homeostasis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and arterial hypertension. However, an independent association of menopause per se with increased risk of CVD events has only been proven for early menopause (<45 years). Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) ameliorates most of the CVD risk factors mentioned above. Transdermal estrogens are the preferable regimen, since they do not increase triglyceride concentrations and they are not associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Although administration of MHT should be considered on an individual basis, MHT may reduce CVD morbidity and mortality, if commenced during the early postmenopausal period (<60 years or within ten years since the last menstrual period). In women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), MHT should be administered at least until the average age of menopause (50–52 years). MHT is contraindicated in women with a history of VTE and is not currently recommended for the sole purpose of CVD prevention. The risk of breast cancer associated with MHT is generally low and is mainly conferred by the progestogen. Micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone are associated with lower risk compared to other progestogens.

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Marília D’Elboux Guimarães Brescia Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Karine Candido Rodrigues Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Endocrine Oncology Division, Institute of Cancer of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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André Fernandes d’Alessandro Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Wellington Alves Filho Department of Surgery, Walter Cantidio University Hospital, Federal University of Ceara School of Medicine (FAMED-UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil

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Willemijn Y van der Plas Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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Schelto Kruijff Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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Sergio Samir Arap Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Sergio Pereira de Almeida Toledo Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Fábio Luiz de Menezes Montenegro Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Delmar Muniz Lourenço Jr Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Endocrine Oncology Division, Institute of Cancer of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Background

Potential influences of parathyroidectomy (PTx) on the quality of life (QoL) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT/MEN1) are unknown.

Method

Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire was prospectively applied to 30 HPT/MEN1 patients submitted to PTx (20, subtotal; 10, total with autograft) before, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Parameters that were analyzed included QoL, age, HPT-related symptoms, general pain, comorbidities, biochemical/hormonal response, PTx type and parathyroid volume.

Results

Asymptomatic patients were younger (30 vs 38 years; P = 0.04) and presented higher QoL scores than symptomatic ones: Physical Component Summary score (PCS) 92.5 vs 61.2, P = 0.0051; Mental Component Summary score (MCS) 82.0 vs 56.0, P = 0.04. In both groups, QoL remained stable 1 year after PTx, independently of the number of comorbidities. Preoperative general pain was negatively correlated with PCS (r = −0.60, P = 0.0004) and MCS (r = −0.57, P = 0.0009). Also, moderate/intense pain was progressively (6/12 months) more frequent in cases developing hypoparathyroidism. The PTx type and hypoparathyroidism did not affect the QoL at 12 months although remnant parathyroid tissue volume did have a positive correlation (P = 0.0490; r = 0.3625) to PCS 12 months after surgery. Patients with one to two comorbidities had as pre-PTx PCS (P = 0.0015) as 12 months and post-PTx PCS (P = 0.0031) and MCS (P = 0.0365) better than patients with three to four comorbidities.

Conclusion

A variable QoL profile was underscored in HPT/MEN1 reflecting multiple factors associated with this complex disorder as comorbidities, advanced age at PTx and presence of preoperative symptoms or of general pain perception. Our data encourage the early indication of PTx in HPT/MEN1 by providing known metabolic benefits to target organs and avoiding potential negative impact on QoL.

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Souad Daamouch Department of Medicine III and Center for Healthy Aging, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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Sylvia Thiele Department of Medicine III and Center for Healthy Aging, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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Lorenz Hofbauer Department of Medicine III and Center for Healthy Aging, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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Martina Rauner Department of Medicine III and Center for Healthy Aging, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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The link between obesity and low bone strength has become a significant medical concern. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is a key regulator of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into either osteoblasts or adipocytes with active Wnt signaling promoting osteoblastogenesis. Our previous research indicated that Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), a Wnt inhibitor, is upregulated in bone tissue in obesity and that osteoblast-derived Dkk1 drives obesity-induced bone loss. However, Dkk1 is also produced by adipocytes, but the impact of adipogenic Dkk1 on bone remodeling and its role in obesity-induced bone loss remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we investigated the influence of adipogenic Dkk1 on bone homeostasis and obesity-induced bone loss in mice. To that end, deletion of Dkk1 in adipocytes was induced by tamoxifen administration into 8-week-old male Dkk1fl/fl;AdipoQcreERT2 mice. Bone and fat mass were analyzed at 12 and 20 weeks of age. Obesity was induced in 8-week-old male Dkk1fl/fl;AdipoQcre mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fats for 12 weeks. We observed that 12-week-old male mice without adipogenic Dkk1 had a significant increase in trabecular bone volume in the vertebrae and femoral bones. While histological and serological bone formation markers were not different, the number of osteoclasts and adipocytes was decreased in the vertebral bones of Dkk1fl/fl;AdipoQcre-positive mice. Despite the increased bone mass in 12-week-old male mice, at 20 weeks of age, there was no difference in the bone volume between the controls and Dkk1fl/fl;AdipoQcre-positive mice. Also, Dkk1fl/fl;AdipoQcre-positive mice were not protected from HFD-induced bone loss. Even though mRNA expression levels of Sost, another important Wnt inhibitor, in bone from Dkk1-deficient mice fed with HFD were decreased compared to Dkk1-sufficient mice on an HFD, this did not prevent the HFD-induced suppression of bone formation. In conclusion, adipogenic Dkk1 may play a transient role in bone mass regulation during adolescence, but it does not contribute to bone homeostasis or obesity-induced bone loss later in life.

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Sofya Gronskaia Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Galina Melnichenko Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Liudmila Rozhinskaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Tatiana Grebennikova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Elizaveta Mamedova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ekaterina Pigarova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Elena Przhialkovskaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Larisa Dzeranova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ivan Dedov Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Valentin Fadeyev I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia

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Maria Luisa Brandi University of Florence, Surgery and Translational Medicine, Piereccaini, Firenze, Italy

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Zhanna Belaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rare endocrine disorders, characterized by low serum calcium due to inappropriate parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels or resistance to its action. There is little epidemiological information regarding chronic hypoparathyroidism in Russia. This study aims to build a registry database of Russian patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism who were referred for hospital treatment in order to conduct initial analysis of clinical presentations and hospital management. The Italian registry model was taken to be able to integrate our data in the future. Two hundred patients with hypoparathyroidism (n = 194) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (n = 6) were enrolled over 2 years (2017–2019). The most frequent cause of hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (82.5%, mostly females), followed by idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (10%), syndromic forms of genetic hypoparathyroidism (4.5%) and forms of defective PTH action (3%). Calcium supplements and alfacalcidol were prescribed in most cases. However, a minority of patients (n = 6) needed to receive teriparatide as the only way to maintain calcium levels and to prevent symptoms of hypocalcemia. Consequently, substitution treatment with parathyroid hormone should be available in certain cases of hypoparathyroidism. This database will be useful to estimate the potential requirement for recombinant PTH in Russia and standards for clinical and therapeutic approaches.

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Henryk F Urbanski Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA

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Kevin Mueller Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA

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Cynthia L Bethea Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA

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Like women, old female rhesus macaques undergo menopause and show many of the same age-associated changes, including perturbed activity/rest cycles and altered circulating levels of many hormones. Previous studies showed that administration of an estrogen agonist increased activity in female monkeys, that hormone therapy (HT) increased activity in postmenopausal women and that obesity decreased activity in women. The present study sought to determine if postmenopausal activity and circulating hormone levels also respond to HT when monkeys are fed a high-fat, high-sugar Western style diet (WSD). Old female rhesus macaques were ovo-hysterectomized (OvH) to induce surgical menopause and fed a WSD for 2 years. Half of the animals received estradiol-17β (E), beginning immediately after OvH, while the other half received placebo. Animals in both groups showed an increase in body weight and a decrease in overall activity levels. These changes were associated with a rise in both daytime and nocturnal serum leptin concentrations, but there was no change in serum concentrations of either cortisol or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). These data suggest that 2 years of HT has little or no effect on locomotor activity or circadian hormone patterns in menopausal macaques fed an obesogenic diet.

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E M Winter Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Center for Bone Quality, Leiden, the Netherlands

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A Ireland Musculoskeletal Science and Sports Medicine Research Centre, Department of Life Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom

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N C Butterfield Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, Commonwealth Building, DuCane Road, London, United Kingdom

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M Haffner-Luntzer Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany

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M-N Horcajada Nestlé Research, Department of Musculoskeletal Health, Innovation EPFL Park, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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A G Veldhuis-Vlug Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Center for Bone Quality, Leiden, the Netherlands
Jan van Goyen Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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L Oei Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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G Colaianni Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Bari, Italy

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N Bonnet Nestlé Research, Department of Musculoskeletal Health, Innovation EPFL Park, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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In this review we discuss skeletal adaptations to the demanding situation of pregnancy and lactation. Calcium demands are increased during pregnancy and lactation, and this is effectuated by a complex series of hormonal changes. The changes in bone structure at the tissue and whole bone level observed during pregnancy and lactation appear to largely recover over time. The magnitude of the changes observed during lactation may relate to the volume and duration of breastfeeding and return to regular menses. Studies examining long-term consequences of pregnancy and lactation suggest that there are small, site-specific benefits to bone density and that bone geometry may also be affected. Pregnancy- and lactation-induced osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare disease for which the pathophysiological mechanism is as yet incompletely known; here, we discuss and speculate on the possible roles of genetics, oxytocin, sympathetic tone and bone marrow fat. Finally, we discuss fracture healing during pregnancy and lactation and the effects of estrogen on this process.

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Stephen A Martin Skeletal Biology Laboratory, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Kenneth A Philbrick Skeletal Biology Laboratory, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Carmen P Wong Skeletal Biology Laboratory, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Dawn A Olson Skeletal Biology Laboratory, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Adam J Branscum Biostatistics Program, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Donald B Jump Molecular Nutrition and Diabetes Research Laboratory, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Charles K Marik Skeletal Biology Laboratory, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Jonathan M DenHerder Carlson College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Jennifer L Sargent Carlson College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Russell T Turner Skeletal Biology Laboratory, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
Center for Healthy Aging Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Urszula T Iwaniec Skeletal Biology Laboratory, School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
Center for Healthy Aging Research, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

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Mice are a commonly used model to investigate aging-related bone loss but, in contrast to humans, mice exhibit cancellous bone loss prior to skeletal maturity. The mechanisms mediating premature bone loss are not well established. However, our previous work in female mice suggests housing temperature is a critical factor. Premature cancellous bone loss was prevented in female C57BL/6J mice by housing the animals at thermoneutral temperature (where basal rate of energy production is at equilibrium with heat loss). In the present study, we determined if the protective effects of thermoneutral housing extend to males. Male C57BL/6J mice were housed at standard room temperature (22°C) or thermoneutral (32°C) conditions from 5 (rapidly growing) to 16 (slowly growing) weeks of age. Mice housed at room temperature exhibited reductions in cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and fifth lumbar vertebra; these effects were abolished at thermoneutral conditions. Mice housed at thermoneutral temperature had higher levels of bone formation in distal femur (based on histomorphometry) and globally (serum osteocalcin), and lower global levels of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) compared to mice housed at room temperature. Thermoneutral housing had no impact on bone marrow adiposity but resulted in higher abdominal white adipose tissue and serum leptin. The overall magnitude of room temperature housing-induced cancellous bone loss did not differ between male (current study) and female (published data) mice. These findings highlight housing temperature as a critical experimental variable in studies using mice of either sex to investigate aging-related changes in bone metabolism.

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Leyre Lorente-Poch Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Sílvia Rifà-Terricabras Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Juan José Sancho Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Danilo Torselli-Valladares Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

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Sofia González-Ortiz Department of Radiology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

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Antonio Sitges-Serra Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Objective:

Permanent hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon disease resulting most frequently from neck surgery. It has been associated with visceral calcifications but few studies have specifically this in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications in patients with long-term post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism compared with a control population.

Design:

Case–control study.

Methods:

A cross-sectional review comparing 29 consecutive patients with permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism followed-up in a tertiary reference unit for Endocrine Surgery with a contemporary control group of 501 patients who had an emergency brain CT scan. Clinical variables and prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications were recorded.

Results:

From a cohort of 46 patients diagnosed with permanent hypoparathyroidism, 29 were included in the study. The mean duration of disease was 9.2 ± 7 years. Age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia were similarly distributed in case and control groups. The prevalence of carotid artery and basal ganglia calcifications was 4 and 20 times more frequent in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism, respectively. After propensity score matching of the 28 the female patients, 68 controls were matched for age and presence of cardiovascular factors. Cases showed a four-fold prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications, whereas that of carotid calcifications was similar between cases and controls.

Conclusion:

A high prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications was observed in patients with post-surgical permanent hypoparathyroidism. It remains unclear whether carotid artery calcification may also be increased.

Open access
Petar Milovanovic Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Laboratory for Anthropology and Skeletal Biology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Björn Busse Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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An increasing number of patients worldwide suffer from bone fractures that occur after low intensity trauma. Such fragility fractures are usually associated with advanced age and osteoporosis but also with long-term immobilization, corticosteroid therapy, diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine disorders. It is important to understand the skeletal origins of increased bone fragility in these conditions for preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat one of the most common health problems of the aged population. This review summarizes current knowledge pertaining to the phenomenon of micropetrosis (osteocyte lacunar mineralization). As an indicator of former osteocyte death, micropetrosis is more common in aged bone and osteoporotic bone. Considering that the number of mineralized osteocyte lacunae per bone area can distinguish healthy, untreated osteoporotic and bisphosphonate-treated osteoporotic patients, it could be regarded as a novel structural marker of impaired bone quality. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism of lacunar mineralization and to explore whether it could be an additional target for preventing or treating bone fragility related to aging and various endocrine diseases.

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