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Athanasios D Anastasilakis Department of Endocrinology, 424 General Military Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Marina Tsoli 1st Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Gregory Kaltsas 1st Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Polyzois Makras Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, 251 Hellenic Air Force & VA General Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of not well-defined etiology that involves immune cell activation and frequently affects the skeleton. Bone involvement in LCH usually presents in the form of osteolytic lesions along with low bone mineral density. Various molecules involved in bone metabolism are implicated in the pathogenesis of LCH or may be affected during the course of the disease, including interleukins (ILs), tumor necrosis factor α, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its soluble ligand RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), periostin and sclerostin. Among them IL-17A, periostin and RANKL have been proposed as potential serum biomarkers for LCH, particularly as the interaction between RANK, RANKL and OPG not only regulates bone homeostasis through its effects on the osteoclasts but also affects the activation and survival of immune cells. Significant changes in circulating and lesional RANKL levels have been observed in LCH patients irrespective of bone involvement. Standard LCH management includes local or systematic administration of corticosteroids and chemotherapy. Given the implication of RANK, RANKL and OPG in the pathogenesis of the disease and the osteolytic nature of bone lesions, agents aiming at inhibiting the RANKL pathway and/or osteoclastic activation, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, may have a role in the therapeutic approach of LCH although further clinical investigation is warranted.

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Rong Xu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Difei Lian Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Yan Xie Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Lin Mu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Yali Wu Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Zhilei Chen Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Baoyu Zhang Center for Endocrine Metabolism and Immune Diseases, Lu He Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diabetes Research and Care, Beijing, China

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Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic bone disease in which bone density and quality decrease and bone fragility increases due to a variety of causes, making it prone to fractures. The development of OP is closely related to oxidative stress. Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine metabolism in the human body. Extracellular UA has antioxidant properties and is thought to have a protective effect on bone metabolism. However, the process of UA degradation can lead to intracellular oxidative stress, which together with UA-induced inflammatory factors, leads to increased bone destruction. In addition, UA can inhibit vitamin D production, resulting in secondary hyperparathyroidism and further exacerbating UA-associated bone loss. This review summarizes the relationship between serum UA levels and bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, and so on, in the hope of providing new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of OP.

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Huda M Elsharkasi Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Suet C Chen Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Lewis Steell Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Shuko Joseph Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Paediatric Neurosciences Research Group, Royal Hospital for Children, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Glasgow, UK

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Naiemh Abdalrahaman Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Christie McComb Department of Clinical Physics, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Glasgow, UK

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Blair Johnston Department of Clinical Physics, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Glasgow, UK

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John Foster Department of Clinical Physics, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde, Glasgow, UK

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Sze Choong Wong Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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S Faisal Ahmed Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Objective

The aim of this study is to investigate the role of 3T-MRI in assessing musculoskeletal health in children and young people.

Design

Bone, muscle and bone marrow imaging was performed in 161 healthy participants with a median age of 15.0 years (range, 8.0, 30.0).

Methods

Detailed assessment of bone microarchitecture (constructive interference in the steady state (CISS) sequence, voxel size 0.2 × 0.2 × 0.4 mm3), bone geometry (T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence, voxel size 0.4 × 0.4 × 2 mm3) and bone marrow (1H-MRS, point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) (single voxel size 20 × 20 × 20 mm3) size and muscle adiposity (Dixon, voxel size 1.1 × 1.1 × 2 mm3).

Results

There was an inverse association of apparent bone volume/total volume (appBV/TV) with age (r = −0.5, P < 0.0005). Cortical area, endosteal and periosteal circumferences and muscle cross-sectional area showed a positive association to age (r > 0.49, P < 0.0001). In those over 17 years of age, these parameters were also higher in males than females (P < 0.05). This sex difference was also evident for appBV/TV and bone marrow adiposity (BMA) in the older participants (P < 0.05). AppBV/TV showed a negative correlation with BMA (r = −0.22, P =  0.01) which also showed an association with muscle adiposity (r = 0.24, P = 0.04). Cortical geometric parameters were highly correlated with muscle area (r > 0.57, P < 0.01).

Conclusions

In addition to providing deep insight into the normal relationships between bone, fat and muscle in young people, these novel data emphasize the role of MRI as a non-invasive method for performing a comprehensive and integrated assessment of musculoskeletal health in the growing skeleton.

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Anna Gorbacheva Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Anna Eremkina Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Daria Goliusova Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Julia Krupinova Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Natalia Mokrysheva Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most common cause of hereditary primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Bone disorders are considered one of the key symptoms in PHPT present with the significant reduction in bone mineral density and low-energy fractures. Previously, these bone disorders were believed to be caused solely by the increase in the level of parathyroid hormone and its subsequent effect on bone resorption. The current paradigm, however, states that the mutations in the menin gene, which cause the development of MEN1, can also affect the metabolism of the cells of the osteoid lineage. This review analyzes both the proven and the potential intracellular mechanisms through which menin can affect bone metabolism.

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Cristina Lamas Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Albacete, Spain

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Elena Navarro Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain

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Anna Casterás Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

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Paloma Portillo Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain

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Victoria Alcázar Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Leganés, Spain

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María Calatayud Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Univeristario Doce de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

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Cristina Álvarez-Escolá Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain

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Julia Sastre Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain

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Evangelina Boix Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Elche, Spain

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Lluis Forga Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

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Almudena Vicente Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain

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Josep Oriola Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Department, Hospital Clínic i Universitari de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Jordi Mesa Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

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Nuria Valdés Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain

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Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Bone and renal complications are common. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but the best timing for surgery is controversial and predictors of persistence and recurrence are not well known. Our study describes the clinical characteristics and the surgical outcomes, after surgery and in the long term, of the patients with MEN1 and primary hyperparathyroidism included in the Spanish Registry of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas (REGMEN). Eighty-nine patients (49 men and 40 women, 34.2 ± 13 years old) were included. Sixty-four out of the 89 underwent surgery: a total parathyroidectomy was done in 13 patients, a subtotal parathyroidectomy in 34 and a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy in 15. Remission rates were higher after a total or a subtotal parathyroidectomy than after a less than subtotal (3/4 and 20/22 vs 7/12, P < 0.05), without significant differences in permanent hypoparathyroidism (1/5, 9/23 and 0/11, N.S.). After a median follow-up of 111 months, 20 of the 41 operated patients with long-term follow-up had persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. We did not find differences in disease-free survival rates between different techniques, patients with or without permanent hypoparathyroidism and patients with different mutated exons, but a second surgery was more frequent after a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy.

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Petar Milovanovic Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Laboratory for Anthropology and Skeletal Biology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Björn Busse Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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An increasing number of patients worldwide suffer from bone fractures that occur after low intensity trauma. Such fragility fractures are usually associated with advanced age and osteoporosis but also with long-term immobilization, corticosteroid therapy, diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine disorders. It is important to understand the skeletal origins of increased bone fragility in these conditions for preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat one of the most common health problems of the aged population. This review summarizes current knowledge pertaining to the phenomenon of micropetrosis (osteocyte lacunar mineralization). As an indicator of former osteocyte death, micropetrosis is more common in aged bone and osteoporotic bone. Considering that the number of mineralized osteocyte lacunae per bone area can distinguish healthy, untreated osteoporotic and bisphosphonate-treated osteoporotic patients, it could be regarded as a novel structural marker of impaired bone quality. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism of lacunar mineralization and to explore whether it could be an additional target for preventing or treating bone fragility related to aging and various endocrine diseases.

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Marília D’Elboux Guimarães Brescia Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Karine Candido Rodrigues Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Endocrine Oncology Division, Institute of Cancer of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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André Fernandes d’Alessandro Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Wellington Alves Filho Department of Surgery, Walter Cantidio University Hospital, Federal University of Ceara School of Medicine (FAMED-UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil

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Willemijn Y van der Plas Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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Schelto Kruijff Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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Sergio Samir Arap Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Sergio Pereira de Almeida Toledo Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Fábio Luiz de Menezes Montenegro Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Delmar Muniz Lourenço Jr Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Endocrine Oncology Division, Institute of Cancer of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Background

Potential influences of parathyroidectomy (PTx) on the quality of life (QoL) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT/MEN1) are unknown.

Method

Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire was prospectively applied to 30 HPT/MEN1 patients submitted to PTx (20, subtotal; 10, total with autograft) before, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Parameters that were analyzed included QoL, age, HPT-related symptoms, general pain, comorbidities, biochemical/hormonal response, PTx type and parathyroid volume.

Results

Asymptomatic patients were younger (30 vs 38 years; P = 0.04) and presented higher QoL scores than symptomatic ones: Physical Component Summary score (PCS) 92.5 vs 61.2, P = 0.0051; Mental Component Summary score (MCS) 82.0 vs 56.0, P = 0.04. In both groups, QoL remained stable 1 year after PTx, independently of the number of comorbidities. Preoperative general pain was negatively correlated with PCS (r = −0.60, P = 0.0004) and MCS (r = −0.57, P = 0.0009). Also, moderate/intense pain was progressively (6/12 months) more frequent in cases developing hypoparathyroidism. The PTx type and hypoparathyroidism did not affect the QoL at 12 months although remnant parathyroid tissue volume did have a positive correlation (P = 0.0490; r = 0.3625) to PCS 12 months after surgery. Patients with one to two comorbidities had as pre-PTx PCS (P = 0.0015) as 12 months and post-PTx PCS (P = 0.0031) and MCS (P = 0.0365) better than patients with three to four comorbidities.

Conclusion

A variable QoL profile was underscored in HPT/MEN1 reflecting multiple factors associated with this complex disorder as comorbidities, advanced age at PTx and presence of preoperative symptoms or of general pain perception. Our data encourage the early indication of PTx in HPT/MEN1 by providing known metabolic benefits to target organs and avoiding potential negative impact on QoL.

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Francesca Marini Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
F.I.R.M.O. Italian Foundation for the Research on Bone Diseases, Florence, Italy

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Francesca Giusti Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Teresa Iantomasi Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Federica Cioppi University Hospital of Florence, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi (AOUC), Florence, Italy

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Maria Luisa Brandi F.I.R.M.O. Italian Foundation for the Research on Bone Diseases, Florence, Italy

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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare, inherited cancer syndrome characterized by the development of multiple endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. MEN1 patients show a reduction of bone mass and a higher prevalence of early onset osteoporosis, compared to healthy population of the same age, gender, and ethnicity. During the monitoring and follow-up of MEN1 patients, the attention of clinicians is primarily focused on the diagnosis and therapy of tumors, while the assessment of bone health and mineral metabolism is, in many cases, marginally considered. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed bone and mineral metabolism features in a series of MEN1 patients from the MEN1 Florentine database. Biochemical markers of bone and mineral metabolism and densitometric parameters of bone mass were retrieved from the database and were analyzed based on age ranges and genders of patients and presence/absence of the three main MEN1-related endocrine tumor types. Our evaluation confirmed that patients with a MEN1 diagnosis have a high prevalence of earlyonset osteopenia and osteoporosis, in association with levels of serum and urinary markers of bone turnover higher than the normal reference values, regardless of their different MEN1 tumors. Fifty percent of patients younger than 26 years manifested osteopenia and 8.3% had osteoporosis, in at least one of the measured bone sites. These data suggest the importance of including biochemical and instrumental monitoring of bone metabolism and bone mass in the routine medical evaluation and follow-up of MEN1 patients and MEN1 carriers as important clinical aspects in the management of the syndrome.

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Marcela Moraes Mendes Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Life Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

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Patricia Borges Botelho Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

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Helena Ribeiro Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Vitamin D enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralisation, promotes maintenance of muscle function, and is crucial for musculoskeletal health. Low vitamin D status triggers secondary hyperparathyroidism, increases bone loss, and leads to muscle weakness. The primary physiologic function of vitamin D and its metabolites is maintaining calcium homeostasis for metabolic functioning, signal transduction, and neuromuscular activity. A considerable amount of human evidence supports the well-recognised contribution of adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations for bone homeostasis maintenance and prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis when combined with adequate calcium intake. This paper aimed to review the literature published, mainly in the last 20 years, on the effect of vitamin D and its supplementation for musculoskeletal health in order to identify the aspects that remain unclear or controversial and therefore require further investigation and debate. There is a clear need for consistent data to establish realistic and meaningful recommendations of vitamin D status that consider different population groups and locations. Moreover, there is still a lack of consensus on thresholds for vitamin D deficiency and optimal status as well as toxicity, optimal intake of vitamin D, vitamin D supplement alone as a strategy to prevent fractures and falls, recommended sun exposure at different latitudes and for different skin pigmentations, and the extra skeletal effects of vitamin D.

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Alessandro Brancatella Endocrine Unit 1, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Claudio Marcocci Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Thyroid hormones stimulate bone turnover in adults by increasing osteoclastic bone resorption. TSH suppressive therapy is usually applied in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) to improve the disease outcome. Over the last decades several authors have closely monitored the potential harm suffered by the skeletal system. Several studies and meta-analyses have shown that chronic TSH suppressive therapy is safe in premenopausal women and men. Conversely, in postmenopausal women TSH suppressive therapy is associated with a decrease of bone mineral density, deterioration of bone architecture (quantitative CT, QCT; trabecular bone score, TBS), and, possibly, an increased risk of fractures. The TSH receptor is expressed in bone cells and the results of experimental studies in TSH receptor knockout mice and humans on whether low TSH levels, as opposed to solely high thyroid hormone levels, might contribute to bone loss in endogenous or exogenous thyrotoxicosis remain controversial. Recent guidelines on the use of TSH suppressive therapy in patients with DTC give value not only to its benefit on the outcome of the disease, but also to the risks associated with exogenous thyrotoxicosis, namely menopause, osteopenia or osteoporosis, age >60 years, and history of atrial fibrillation. Bone health (BMD and/or preferably TBS) should be evaluated in postmenopausal women under chronic TSH suppressive therapy or in those patients planning to be treated for several years. Antiresorptive therapy could also be considered in selected cases (increased risk of fracture or significant decline of BMD/TBS during therapy) to prevent bone loss.

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