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Hans Valdemar López Krabbe Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jørgen Holm Petersen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Section of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Louise Laub Asserhøj Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Fertility, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Trine Holm Johannsen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Peter Christiansen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Rikke Beck Jensen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Line Hartvig Cleemann Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Casper P Hagen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lærke Priskorn Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Niels Jørgensen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Katharina M Main Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lise Aksglaede Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Adult patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are characterized by a highly variable phenotype, including tall stature, obesity, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, as well as an increased risk of developing insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Most adults need testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), whereas the use of TRT during puberty has been debated. In this retrospective, observational study, reproductive hormones and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition and bone mineral content were standardized to age-related standard deviation scores in 62 patients with KS aged 5.9–20.6 years. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and inhibin B were low, whereas luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were high in patients before TRT. Despite normal body mass index, body fat percentage and the ratio between android fat percentage and gynoid fat percentage were significantly higher in the entire group irrespective of treatment status. In patients evaluated before and during TRT, a tendency toward a more beneficial body composition with a significant reduction in the ratio between android fat percentage and gynoid fat percentage during TRT was found. Bone mineral content (BMC) did not differ from the reference, but BMC corrected for bone area was significantly lower when compared to the reference. This study confirms that patients with KS have an unfavorable body composition and an impaired bone mineral status already during childhood and adolescence. Systematic studies are needed to evaluate whether TRT during puberty will improve these parameters.

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Claus H Gravholt Department of Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

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Alberto Ferlin Department of Medicine, Unit of Andrology and Reproductive Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Joerg Gromoll Centre of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, Münster, Germany

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Armin Raznahan Section on Developmental Neurogenomics, National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

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Sophie van Rijn Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands and TRIXY Center of Expertise, Leiden University Treatment and Expertise Centre (LUBEC), Leiden, The Netherlands

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Alan D Rogol Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

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Anne Skakkebæk Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Department of Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Nicole Tartaglia Department of Pediatrics, Developmental Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA

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Hanna Swaab Clinical Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands and TRIXY Center of Expertise, Leiden University Treatment and Expertise Centre (LUBEC), Leiden, The Netherlands

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The 3rd International Workshop on Klinefelter Syndrome, Trisomy X, and 47,XYY syndrome was held in Leiden, the Netherlands, on September 12–14, 2022.

Here, we review new data presented at the workshop and discuss scientific and clinical trajectories. We focus on shortcomings in knowledge and therefore point out future areas for research.

We focus on the genetics and genomics of supernumerary sex chromosome syndromes with new data being presented. Most knowledge centre specifically on Klinefelter syndrome, where aspects on testosterone deficiency and the relation to bone, muscle and fat were discussed, as was infertility and the treatment thereof. Both trisomy X and 47,XYY syndrome are frequently affected by infertility.

Transitioning of males with Klinefelter syndrome was addressed, as this seemingly simple process in practise is often difficult.

It is now realized that neurocognitive changes are pervasive in all supernumerary sex chromosome syndromes, which were extensively discussed. New intervention projects were also described, and exciting new data concerning these were presented.

Advocacy organizations were present, describing the enormous burden carried by parents when having to explain their child’s specific syndrome to most professionals whenever in contact with health care and education systems. It was also pointed out that most countries do not have health care systems that diagnose patients with supernumerary sex chromosome syndromes, thus pinpointing a clear deficiency in the current genetic testing and care models.

At the end of the workshop, a roadmap towards the development of new international clinical care guidelines for Klinefelter syndrome was decided.

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