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  • Abstract: Vitamin D x
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Rolf Jorde Tromsø Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

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Guri Grimnes Tromsø Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway

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Objective

In addition to its skeletal effects, vitamin D may also be important for health in general. It is uncertain what level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), marker of vitamin D status, is sufficient for these effects. With decreasing serum 25(OH)D levels there is an increase in serum PTH. The point at which this occurs has been considered as a threshold for vitamin D sufficiency. The thresholds found have varied widely and have mainly been based on observational studies. However, to truly establish a threshold for vitamin D effects, this has to be based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Methods

The study included 2803 subjects from a general health survey, the Tromsø study, and pooled individual person data from five vitamin D intervention studies (n = 1544). Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and change in PTH after vitamin D supplementation were related to serum 25(OH)D levels in steps of 25 nmol/L (<24, 25–49, 50–74, 75–99, and >99 nmol/L).

Results

In the Tromsø study, in the females there was a gradual decrease in serum PTH with increasing serum 25(OH)D with no apparent plateau, whereas in the males the decrease in PTH in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >74 nmol/l was marginal. In pooled RCTs, there was a significant reduction in serum PTH by vitamin D supplementation regardless of baseline serum 25(OH)D level.

Conclusions

The use of the serum PTH–25(OH)D relation from observational studies to determine a threshold for vitamin D sufficiency is highly questionable.

Open access
K Amrein Thyroid Endocrinology Osteoporosis Institute Dobnig, Graz, Austria
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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A Papinutti Department of General Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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E Mathew Department of General Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
Department of General Surgery, St. Elisabeth’s Hospital, Graz, Austria

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G Vila Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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D Parekh Clinician Scientist in Critical Care, Birmingham, Acute Care Research Group, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

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The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in intensive care units ranges typically between 40 and 70%. There are many reasons for being or becoming deficient in the ICU. Hepatic, parathyroid and renal dysfunction additionally increases the risk for developing vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, therapeutic interventions like fluid resuscitation, dialysis, surgery, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiopulmonary bypass and plasma exchange may significantly reduce vitamin D levels. Many observational studies have consistently shown an association between low vitamin D levels and poor clinical outcomes in critically ill adults and children, including excess mortality and morbidity such as acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, duration of mechanical ventilation and sepsis. It is biologically plausible that vitamin D deficiency is an important and modifiable contributor to poor prognosis during and after critical illness. Although vitamin D supplementation is inexpensive, simple and has an excellent safety profile, testing for and treating vitamin D deficiency is currently not routinely performed. Overall, less than 800 patients have been included in RCTs worldwide, but the available data suggest that high-dose vitamin D supplementation could be beneficial. Two large RCTs in Europe and the United States, together aiming to recruit >5000 patients, have started in 2017, and will greatly improve our knowledge in this field. This review aims to summarize current knowledge in this interdisciplinary topic and give an outlook on its highly dynamic future.

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J A Tamblyn Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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C Jenkinson Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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D P Larner Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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M Hewison Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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M D Kilby Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women and may contribute to adverse events in pregnancy such as preeclampsia (PET). To date, studies of vitamin D and PET have focused primarily on serum concentrations vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) later in pregnancy. The aim here was to determine whether a more comprehensive analysis of vitamin D metabolites earlier in pregnancy could provide predictors of PET. Using samples from the SCOPE pregnancy cohort, multiple vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in paired serum and urine prior to the onset of PET symptoms. Samples from 50 women at pregnancy week 15 were analysed, with 25 (50%) developing PET by the end of the pregnancy and 25 continuing with uncomplicated pregnancy. Paired serum and urine from non-pregnant women (n = 9) of reproductive age were also used as a control. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, 1,25(OH)2D3, 24,25(OH)2D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 were measured and showed no significant difference between women with uncomplicated pregnancies and those developing PET. As previously reported, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 was higher in all pregnant women (in the second trimester), but serum 25(OH)D2 was also higher compared to non-pregnant women. In urine, 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 were quantifiable, with both metabolites demonstrating significantly lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of both of these metabolites in those destined to develop PET. These data indicate that analysis of urinary metabolites provides an additional insight into vitamin D and the kidney, with lower urinary 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 excretion being an early indicator of a predisposition towards developing PET.

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Behnaz Abiri Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Majid Valizadeh Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Amirhossein Ramezani Ahmadi Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

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Shirin Amini Department of Nutrition, Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran

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Mohammad Nikoohemmat Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Faeze Abbaspour Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Farhad Hosseinpanah Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Objectives

It has not been established whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with anthropometric state; therefore, this systematic review examined the relationship between serum vitamin D levels with anthropometrics and adiposity across different ages.

Methods

Studies that examined vitamin D deficiency with adiposity measures in different age groups were searched in the PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases until November 2023. Two investigators independently reviewed titles and abstracts, examined full-text articles, extracted data, and rated the quality in accordance with the Newcastle–Ottawa criteria.

Results

Seventy-two studies, with a total of 59,430 subjects, were included. Of these studies, 27 cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (with 25,615 participants) evaluated the possible link between 25(OH)D serum concentrations and anthropometric/adiposity indices in the pediatric population. Forty-two cross-sectional studies and two cohort investigations (with 33,815 participants) investigated the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and adiposity measures in adults and/or the elderly population. There is evidence supporting links between vitamin D deficiency and obesity, and revealed an inverse association between vitamin D and adiposity indicators, specifically in female subjects. However, the effects of several confounding factors should also be considered.

Conclusion

Most published studies, most of which were cross-sectional, reported a negative association between vitamin D and female adiposity indicators. Therefore, serum vitamin D levels should be monitored in overweight/obese individuals.

Open access
Fabienne A U Fox Population Health Sciences, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany

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Lennart Koch Population Health Sciences, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany
University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT TIROL), Tirol, Austria

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Monique M B Breteler Population Health Sciences, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany
Institute for Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology (IMBIE), Faculty of Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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N Ahmad Aziz Population Health Sciences, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany
Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

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Objective

Maintaining muscle function throughout life is critical for healthy ageing. Although in vitro studies consistently indicate beneficial effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) on muscle function, findings from population-based studies remain inconclusive. We therefore aimed to examine the association between 25-OHD concentration and handgrip strength across a wide age range and assess potential modifying effects of age, sex and season.

Methods

We analysed cross-sectional baseline data of 2576 eligible participants out of the first 3000 participants (recruited from March 2016 to March 2019) of the Rhineland Study, a community-based cohort study in Bonn, Germany. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relation between 25-OHD levels and grip strength while adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, season, body mass index, physical activity levels, osteoporosis and vitamin D supplementation.

Results

Compared to participants with deficient 25-OHD levels (<30 nmol/L), grip strength was higher in those with inadequate (30 to <50 nmol/L) and adequate (≥50 to ≤125 nmol/L) levels (ß inadequate = 1.222, 95% CI: 0.377; 2.067, P = 0.005; ß adequate = 1.228, 95% CI: 0.437; 2.019, P = 0.002). Modelling on a continuous scale revealed grip strength to increase with higher 25-OHD levels up to ~100 nmol/L, after which the direction reversed (ß linear = 0.505, 95% CI: 0.179; 0.830, P = 0.002; ß quadratic = –0.153, 95% CI: –0.269; -0.038, P = 0.009). Older adults showed weaker effects of 25-OHD levels on grip strength than younger adults (ß 25OHDxAge = –0.309, 95% CI: –0.594; –0.024, P = 0.033).

Conclusions

Our findings highlight the importance of sufficient 25-OHD levels for optimal muscle function across the adult life span. However, vitamin D supplementation should be closely monitored to avoid detrimental effects.

Open access
Elena Valassi Endocrinology/Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER, Unidad 747), IIB-Sant Pau, ISCIII and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain

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Natalia García-Giralt URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Jorge Malouf Mineral Metabolism Unit, Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain

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Iris Crespo Endocrinology/Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER, Unidad 747), IIB-Sant Pau, ISCIII and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain

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Jaume Llauger Radiology Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain

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Adolfo Díez-Pérez URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Susan M Webb Endocrinology/Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER, Unidad 747), IIB-Sant Pau, ISCIII and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain

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Background

Biochemical control of GH/IGF-I excess in acromegaly (ACRO) is associated with persistent impairment of trabecular microstructure leading to increased risk of vertebral fractures. Circulating miRNAs modulate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and may be potential biomarkers of osteoporosis.

Aims

Identify differentially expressed miRNAs in the serum of patients with controlled ACRO vs controls and correlate miRNA levels with both biochemical and structural bone parameters.

Patients and methods

Twenty-seven patients with controlled ACRO (11 males, 16 females; mean age, 48 ± 5 years; BMI, 28 ± 4 kg/m2) and 27 age-, gender- and BMI-matched controls were recruited. Areal BMD at lumbar spine and femur, and trabecular bone score were assessed; volumetric BMD was measured by quantitative computed tomography QCT-Pro (Mindways). Twenty miRNAs, chosen by their putative role in bone, were quantified in serum using real-time qPCR.

Results

In ACRO patients, miR-103a-3p and miR-191-5p were found overexpressed, whereas miR-660-5p was underexpressed (P < 0.001). miR-103a-3p levels were negatively associated with both trabecular vBMD at trochanter and serum osteoprotegerin concentrations (P < 0.05) and positively with vitamin D concentrations (P < 0.01) and total cross-sectional area of the femoral neck (P < 0.05). miR-660-5p levels were correlated with both trabecular vBMD at trochanter and OPG concentrations (P < 0.05), but were negatively associated with vitamin D levels (P < 0.05). A negative correlation between miR-103-a-3p and miR-660-5p was found in both groups (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Circulating miR-103a-3p and miR-660-5p are differentially expressed in controlled ACRO patients and associated with bone structural parameters. miRNAs may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of bone disease and could be used as biomarkers in ACRO patients.

Open access
Elisabet Einarsdottir Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden

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Minna Pekkinen Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Kaarel Krjutškov Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Competence Centre on Health Technologies, Tartu, Estonia

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Shintaro Katayama Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden

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Juha Kere Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
School of Basic and Medical Biosciences, King’s College London, Guy’s Hospital, London, United Kingdom

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Outi Mäkitie Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Heli Viljakainen Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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Objective

The effect of vitamin D at the transcriptome level is poorly understood, and furthermore, it is unclear if it differs between obese and normal-weight subjects. The objective of the study was to explore the transcriptome effects of vitamin D supplementation.

Design and methods

We analysed peripheral blood gene expression using GlobinLock oligonucleotides followed by RNA sequencing in individuals participating in a 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled vitamin D intervention study. The study involved 18 obese and 18 normal-weight subjects (of which 20 males) with mean (±s.d.) age 20.4 (±2.5) years and BMIs 36 (±10) and 23 (±4) kg/m2, respectively. The supplemental daily vitamin D dose was 50 µg (2000 IU). Data were available at baseline, 6- and 12-week time points and comparisons were performed between the vitamin D and placebo groups separately in obese and normal-weight subjects.

Results

Significant transcriptomic changes were observed at 6 weeks, and only in the obese subjects: 1724 genes were significantly upregulated and 186 genes were downregulated in the vitamin D group compared with placebo. Further analyses showed several enriched gene categories connected to mitochondrial function and metabolism, and the most significantly enriched pathway was related to oxidative phosphorylation (adjusted P value 3.08 × 10−14). Taken together, our data suggest an effect of vitamin D supplementation on mitochondrial function in obese subjects.

Conclusions

Vitamin D supplementation affects gene expression in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. The altered genes are enriched in pathways related to mitochondrial function. The present study increases the understanding of the effects of vitamin D at the transcriptome level.

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Kevin D Cashman Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

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Background

Internationally, concern has been repeatedly raised about the little notable progress in the collection, analysis and use of population micronutrient status and deficiency data globally. The need for representative status and intake data for vitamin D has been highlighted as a research priority for well over a decade.

Aim and methods

A narrative review which aims to provide a summary and assessment of vitamin D nutritional status data globally. This review divides the world into the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) major regions: the Americas, Europe, Oceania, Africa and Asia. Emphasis was placed on published data on the prevalence of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L (reflecting vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, respectively) as well as vitamin D intake, where possible from nationally representative surveys.

Results

Collating data from the limited number of available representative surveys from individual countries might suggest a relatively low overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in South America, Oceania and North America, whereas there is more moderate prevalence in Europe and Asia, and possibly Africa. Overall, the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L ranges from ~5 to 18% and 24 to 49%, respectively, depending on FAO world region. Usual intakes of vitamin D can also vary by FAO world region, but in general, with a few exceptions, there are very high levels of inadequacy of vitamin D intake.

Conclusions

While the burden of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy varies by world regions and not just by UVB availability, the global burden overall translates into enormous numbers of individuals at risk.

Open access
Amarjit Saini Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Linda Björkhem-Bergman Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Departments of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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Johan Boström Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Mats Lilja Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Michael Melin Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Karl Olsson Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Lena Ekström Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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Peter Bergman Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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Mikael Altun Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Eric Rullman Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Thomas Gustafsson Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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The CC genotype of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism TaqI rs731236 has previously been associated with a higher risk of developing myopathy compared to TT carriers. However, the mechanistic role of this polymorphism in skeletal muscle is not well defined. The effects of vitamin D on patients genotyped for the VDR polymorphism TaqI rs731236, comparing CC and TT carriers were evaluated. Primary human myoblasts isolated from 4 CC carriers were compared with myoblasts isolated from four TT carriers and treated with vitamin D in vitro. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect on myoblast proliferation and differentiation was observed concurrent with modifications of key myogenic regulatory factors. RNA sequencing revealed a vitamin D dose–response gene signature enriched with a higher number of VDR-responsive elements (VDREs) per gene. Interestingly, the greater the expression of muscle differentiation markers in myoblasts, the more pronounced was the vitamin D-mediated response to suppress genes associated with myogenic fusion and myotube formation. This novel finding provides a mechanistic explanation to the inconsistency regarding previous reports of the role of vitamin D in myoblast differentiation. No effects in myoblast proliferation, differentiation or gene expression were related to CC vs TT carriers. Our findings suggest that the VDR polymorphism TaqI rs731236 comparing CC vs TT carriers did not influence the effects of vitamin D on primary human myoblasts and that vitamin D inhibits myoblast proliferation and differentiation through key regulators of cell cycle progression. Future studies need to employ strategies to identify the primary responses of vitamin D that drive the cellular response towards quiescence.

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Mieke Van Hemelrijck
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Thurkaa Shanmugalingam
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Cecilia Bosco
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Wahyu Wulaningsih
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Sabine Rohrmann Cancer Epidemiology Group, Division of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Division of Cancer Studies, King's College London, London, UK

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Background

Despite mounting evidence linking both calcium and IGF1, there is a lack of studies investigating any association between circulating levels of IGF1 and serum calcium.

Methods

Serum calcium, IGF1, and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) were measured for 5368 participants in NHANES III. We calculated multivariable-adjusted geometric means of serum concentrations of IGF1, IGFBP3, and IGF1/IGFBP3 by categories of calcium (lowest 5% (<1.16 mmol/l), mid 90%, and top 5% (≥1.31 mmol/l)). We also performed stratified analyses by sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, serum levels of vitamin D, and bone mineral density (BMD).

Results

Overall, we found that circulating calcium was positively associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3, but not their molar ratio (i.e., geometric mean of IGF1 by increasing calcium categories: 237.63, 246.51, and 264.22 ng/nl; P trend: 0.43; P first vs third category: 0.01). In particular, these associations were observed in women, people aged <60, non-Hispanic whites, those with vitamin D levels above the mean, and those with low BMD. In contrast, there was an inverse association with the molar ratio for those with BMI ≥30 kg/m2.

Conclusion

We found an overall positive association between circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3 and serum calcium. However, stratification by potential effect-modifiers did not support all suggested hypotheses. Our findings provide more insight into the interplay between calcium and IGF1, which in the future can be investigated in larger observational studies allowing for additional stratifications based on a combination of the different effect-modifiers investigated here.

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