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Izabelle Lövgren Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Azadeh Abravan Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Radiotherapy Related Research, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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Abigail Bryce-Atkinson Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Marcel van Herk Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Radiotherapy Related Research, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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Brain tumours make up nearly one-third of paediatric malignancies. Over time, advancements in oncological treatments like radiotherapy have helped reduce normal-tissue toxicity when treating cancers in the brain. However, clinicians are still facing a trade-off between treatment efficacy and potential side effects. The aim of this review is to address the late effects of cranial irradiation on the neuroendocrine system and to identify factors that make patients more vulnerable to radiation-induced endocrine sequelae. Radiation damage to the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, which orchestrates hormone release, can lead to endocrinopathy; up to 48.8% of children who have undergone cranial irradiation develop a hormone deficiency. This may lead to further health complications that can appear up to decades after the last treatment, lowering the patients’ quality of life and increasing long-term costs as lifelong hormone replacement therapy may be required. Growth hormone deficiency is the most common sequelae, followed by either thyroid or gonadotropic hormone deficiency. Adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency tends to be the least common. Identified factors that increase the risk of late endocrine deficiency include total radiation dose, age at treatment, and time since last treatment. However, as there are various other factors that may potentiate the damage, a universal solution proven to be most effective in sparing the endocrine tissues is yet to be identified. Until then, accounting for the identified risk factors during treatment planning may in some cases help reduce the development of endocrine sequelae in childhood cancer survivors.

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J Gebauer Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck and Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany

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R Skinner Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Haematology and Oncology and Children’s BMT Unit, Great North Children’s Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, and Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University Centre for Cancer, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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R Haupt DOPO Clinic, Department of Hematology/Oncolgy, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy

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L Kremer Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Amsterdam UMC, Emma’s Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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H van der Pal Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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G Michel Department of Health Sciences and Medicine, University of Lucerne, Luzern, Switzerland

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G T Armstrong Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

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M M Hudson Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

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L Hjorth Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Paediatrics, Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden

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H Lehnert Paris Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria

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T Langer Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany

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Many long-term childhood cancer survivors suffer from treatment-related late effects, which may occur in any organ and include a wide spectrum of conditions. Long-term follow-up (LTFU) is recommended to facilitate early diagnosis and to ensure better health outcomes. Due to the heterogeneity of these sequelae, different specialists work together in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. Experts from both pediatric and internal medicine are involved in age-appropriate care by providing a transition process. Hence, LTFU of childhood cancer survivors is a prototypic example of multidisciplinary care for patients with complex needs treated in a specialized setting. International collaborations of healthcare professionals and scientists involved in LTFU of childhood cancer survivors, such as the International Guideline Harmonization Group, compile surveillance recommendations that can be clinically adopted all over the world. These global networks of clinicians and researchers make a joint effort to address gaps in knowledge, increase visibility and awareness of cancer survivorship and provide an excellent example of how progress in clinical care and scientific research may be achieved by international and multidisciplinary collaboration.

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Frederique Van de Velde Department of Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Marlies Bekaert Department of Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Anja Geerts Department of Hepatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Anne Hoorens Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital

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Arsène-Hélène Batens Department of Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Samyah Shadid Department of Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Margriet Ouwens Department of Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
Institute of Clinical Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry, German Diabetes Center at the Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research, Duesseldorf, Germany
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Munich-Neuherberg, Germany

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Yves Van Nieuwenhove Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Bruno Lapauw Department of Endocrinology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

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Purpose

Obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are more prone to develop additional metabolic disturbances such as systemic insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD is defined by hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and stage of fibrosis, but it is unclear if and which components could contribute to IR.

Objective

To assess which histological components of NAFLD associate with IR in subjects with obesity, and if so, to what extent.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 78 obese subjects (mean age 46 ± 11 years; BMI 42.2 ± 4.7 kg/m2). Glucose levels were analysed by hexokinase method and insulin levels with electrochemiluminescence. Homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Liver biopsies were evaluated for histological components of NAFLD.

Results

A positive association between overall NAFLD Activity Score and HOMA-IR was found (r s = 0.259, P = 0.022). As per individual components, lobular inflammation and fibrosis stage were positively associated with HOMA-IR, glucose and insulin levels (P < 0.05), and HOMA-IR was higher in patients with more inflammatory foci or higher stage of fibrosis. These findings were independent of age, BMI, triglyceride levels, diabetes status and sex (all P < 0.043). In a combined model, lobular inflammation, but not fibrosis, remained associated with HOMA-IR.

Conclusion

In this group of obese subjects, a major contributing histological component of NAFLD to the relation between NAFLD severity and IR seems to be the grade of hepatic lobular inflammation. Although no causal relationship was assessed, preventing or mitigating this inflammatory response in obesity might be of importance in controlling obesity-related metabolic disturbances.

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Charlotte Höybye Patient Area Endocrinology and Nephrology, Infection and Inflammation Theme, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

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Laia Faseh Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

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Christos Himonakos Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Medicine, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden

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Tomasz Pielak NUTOPI Sp. z o. o., Poznan, Poland

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Jesper Eugen-Olsen Clinical Research Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark

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Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome is associated with adverse levels of several risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including metabolic inflammation. However, the impact of GHD and GH treatment on low-grade inflammation is unknown. The aim of the study was to establish the level of the low-grade inflammation biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in adults with GHD and the response to long-term GH treatment. Measurements of suPAR and CRP were performed in bio-bank serum samples from 72 adults, 34 males and 38 females, with GHD before and during at least 5 years of GH treatment. Mean age was 52.5 ± 15.5 years, BMI 27.3 ± 5 kg/m2. Clinical evaluations and blood sampling were performed at routine visits. Data on demography, anthropometry, lab results and clinical events were retrieved from post-marketing surveillance study databases and medical records. suPAR and high-sensitive (hs) CRP were analysed using ELISA and immunochemistry, respectively. At baseline blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were within the normal reference range. Baseline geometric mean and 95% CI of suPAR was 2.9 (2.7–3.3) ng/mL and of CRP 2.3 (0.6–4.0) mg/L. Mean follow-up was 8 ± 2 years. The suPAR levels remained stable during follow-up, although individual increases were seen on occurrence or presence of co-morbidities. In contrast, levels of CRP decreased. In conclusion, the decrease in CRP and indirectly the absence of an expected increase in suPAR over time indicates a favourable effect of GH on low-grade inflammation.

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Ru-Xuan Zhao Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Diabetes Institute, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Ting-Ting Shi Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Diabetes Institute, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Sha Luo Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Yun-Fu Liu Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Zhong Xin Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Diabetes Institute, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Jin-Kui Yang Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Diabetes Institute, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Background

Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disease with mechanical impairment of orbital muscles and lacrimal gland dysfunction. The frequently used methods of assessing GO activity include Clinical Activity Score (CAS), CT, and MRI. These approaches are mainly associated with orbital muscles; however, there are not many studies that focus on the lacrimal gland inflammation of GO patients.

Objective

The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of 99mTc-DTPA single-photon emission (SPE) CT/CT in evaluating the lacrimal gland inflammation in GO, as compared with other methods.

Methods

A retrospective analysis of 48 patients with active GO compared with 33 controls was conducted. All subjects underwent clinical–endocrinological analyses, CAS evaluation, CT scans, and SPECT/CT examination. Lacrimal gland dimensions were determined and analyzed.

Results

The lacrimal glands in patients with GO were significantly larger in all measured dimensions (P  < 0.001) on CT scans relative to those in controls. Increased lacrimal gland diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) uptake ratios (P  < 0.001) were displayed in active GO patients compared to controls and were also correlated with thyrotropin receptor antibody levels. The cut-off value for discriminating active and inactive disease was calculated to be 1.735, with specificity of 82.6% and sensitivity of 74.2%. SPECT/CT uptake ratios and CAS values were positively correlated in all GO patients. SPECT/CT uptake ratios were also positively correlated with CT measurements including lacrimal gland volume and coronal width in GO patients.

Conclusions

These data indicated that lacrimal gland SPECT/CT images can serve as a good tool for assessing the inflammation and disease activity of GO.

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M A Webb NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
The Leicester Diabetes Centre, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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H Mani Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK
Diabetes and Endocrinology Department, Kettering General Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Kettering, UK

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S J Robertson The Leicester Diabetes Centre, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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H L Waller Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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D R Webb NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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C L Edwardson NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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D H Bodicoat NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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T Yates NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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K Khunti NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
The Leicester Diabetes Centre, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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M J Davies NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
The Leicester Diabetes Centre, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK
Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK

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Aims

Physical activity has been proposed to be an effective non-pharmacological method of reducing systemic inflammation and therefore may prove particularly efficacious for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who have been shown to have high levels of inflammation and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether modest changes in daily step count could significantly reduce levels of inflammatory markers in women with PCOS.

Subjects and Methods

Sixty-five women with PCOS were assessed at baseline and again at 6 months. All had been provided with an accelerometer and encouraged to increase activity levels. Multivariate linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, ethnicity, baseline step count, change in BMI and change in accelerometer wear-time) were used to assess changes in daily step count against clinical and research biomarkers of inflammation, CVD and T2DM.

Results

Mean step count/day at baseline was 6337 (±270). An increase in step count (by 1000 steps) was associated with a 13% reduction in IL6 (β: −0.81 ng/L; 95% CI, −1.37, −0.25, P = 0.005) and a 13% reduction in CRP (β: −0.68 mg/L; 95% CI, −1.30, −0.06, P = 0.033). Additionally, there was a modest decrease in BMI (β: 0.20 kg/m2; 95% CI, −0.38, −0.01, P = 0.038). Clinical markers of T2DM and CVD were not affected by increased step count.

Conclusions

Modest increases in step count/day can reduce levels of inflammatory markers in women with PCOS, which may reduce the future risk of T2DM and CVD.

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Maria Stelmachowska-Banaś Department of Endocrinology, The Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Polska, Poland

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Izabella Czajka-Oraniec Department of Endocrinology, The Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Polska, Poland

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Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) belong to a new group of anticancer drugs targeting T-cell proteins involved in the activation of immune response toward malignancies. Their introduction into clinical practice was a milestone in modern cancer treatment. However, the significant advantage of ICIs over conventional chemotherapy in terms of therapeutic efficacy is accompanied by new challenges related to specific side effects. ICI-induced immune system activation could lead to the loss of self-tolerance, presenting as autoimmune inflammation and dysfunction of various tissues and organs. Thus, the typical side effects of ICIs include immune-related adverse events (irAEs), among which endocrine irAEs, affecting numerous endocrine glands, have been commonly recognized. This review aimed to outline the current knowledge regarding ICI-induced endocrine disorders from a clinical perspective. We present updated information on the incidence and clinical development of ICI-induced endocrinopathies, including the most frequent thyroiditis and hypophysitis, the rarely observed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and primary adrenal insufficiency, and the recently described cases of hypoparathyroidism and lipodystrophy. Practical guidelines for monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment of ICI-related endocrine toxicities are also offered. Rising awareness of endocrine irAEs among oncologists, endocrinologists, and other health professionals caring for patients receiving ICIs could contribute to better safety and efficacy. As immunotherapy becomes widespread and approved for new types of malignancies, increased incidences of endocrine irAEs are expected in the future.

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Cheryl M Isherwood Section of Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

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M Denise Robertson Section of Metabolic Medicine, Food and Macronutrients, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

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Debra J Skene Section of Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

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Jonathan D Johnston Section of Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

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Obesity is a major cause of type 2 diabetes. Transition from obesity to type 2 diabetes manifests in the dysregulation of hormones controlling glucose homeostasis and inflammation. As metabolism is a dynamic process that changes across 24 h, we assessed diurnal rhythmicity in a panel of 10 diabetes-related hormones. Plasma hormones were analysed every 2 h over 24 h in a controlled laboratory study with hourly isocaloric drinks during wake. To separate effects of body mass from type 2 diabetes, we recruited three groups of middle-aged men: an overweight (OW) group with type 2 diabetes and two control groups (lean and OW). Average daily concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerol and all the hormones except visfatin were significantly higher in the OW group compared to the lean group (P < 0.001). In type 2 diabetes, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 increased further (P < 0.05), whereas triacylglycerol, ghrelin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations were significantly lower compared to the OW group (P < 0.001). Insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and leptin exhibited significant diurnal rhythms in all study groups (P < 0.05). Other hormones were only rhythmic in 1 or 2 groups. In every group, hormones associated with glucose regulation (insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, ghrelin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), triacylglycerol and glucose peaked in the afternoon, whereas glucagon and hormones associated with appetite and inflammation peaked at night. Thus being OW with or without type 2 diabetes significantly affected hormone concentrations but did not affect the timing of the hormonal rhythms.

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Lars Peter Sørensen
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Tina Parkner Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Esben Søndergaard
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Bo Martin Bibby Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Holger Jon Møller Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Søren Nielsen
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Monocyte/macrophage-specific soluble CD163 (sCD163) concentration is associated with insulin resistance and increases with deteriorating glycemic control independently of BMI. This led to the proposal of the hypothesis that obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation varies between individuals. The objective was to examine the effect of male overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on associations between adiposity parameters and sCD163. A total of 23 overweight/obese non-diabetic men, 16 overweight/obese men with T2DM, and a control group of 20 normal-weight healthy men were included. Body composition and regional body fat distribution were determined by whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. Serum sCD163 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Associations between adiposity parameters and sCD163 were investigated using multiple linear regression analysis. In the normal-weight healthy men, there was no significant association between adiposity parameters and sCD163, whereas in the overweight/obese non-diabetic men, measures of general and regional adiposity were positively associated with sCD163. In the overweight/obese men with T2DM, only visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the ratio of VAT to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), a measure of relative body fat distribution between VAT and SAT depots, were positively associated with sCD163. In a multivariate analysis, including VAT, upper-body SAT, and lower-body fat, adjusted for BMI and age, VAT remained a significant predictor of sCD163 in the overweight/obese T2DM men, but not in the overweight/obese non-diabetic men. Our results indicate that VAT inflammation is exaggerated in men with T2DM, and that propensity to store excess body fat viscerally is particularly detrimental in men with T2DM.

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Aditya Dutta Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Max Healthcare, Saket, New Delhi, India

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Ganesh Jevalikar Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Max Healthcare, Saket, New Delhi, India

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Rutuja Sharma Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Max Healthcare, Saket, New Delhi, India

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Khalid J Farooqui Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Max Healthcare, Saket, New Delhi, India

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Shama Mahendru Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Max Healthcare, Saket, New Delhi, India

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Arun Dewan Institute of Internal Medicine, Max Healthcare, Saket, New Delhi, India

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Sandeep Bhudiraja Institute of Internal Medicine, Max Healthcare, Saket, New Delhi, India

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Ambrish Mithal Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Max Healthcare, Saket, New Delhi, India

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Aim

To study the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its association with disease severity in hospitalized patients of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).

Methods

In this retrospective cohort study, thyroid function tests (TFT) of 236 hospitalized patients of COVID-19 along with demographic, comorbid, clinical, biochemical and disease severity records were analysed. Patients were divided into previous euthyroid or hypothyroid status to observe the effect of prior hypothyroidism on the severity of COVID-19.

Results

TFT abnormalities were common. Low free T3 (FT3), high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and low TSH were seen in 56 (23.7%), 15 (6.4%) and 9 (3.8%) patients, respectively. The median levels of TSH (2.06 vs 1.26 mIU/mL, P = 0.001) and FT3 (2.94 vs 2.47 pg/mL, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in severe disease. Previous hypothyroid status (n = 43) was associated with older age, higher frequency of comorbidities, higher FT4 and lower FT3. TFT did not correlate with markers of inflammation (except lactate dehydrogenase); however, FT3 and TSH negatively correlated with outcome severity score and duration of hospital stay. Cox regression analysis showed that low FT3 was associated with severe COVID-19 (P = 0.032, HR 0.302; CI 0.101–0.904), irrespective of prior hypothyroidism.

Conclusions

Functional thyroid abnormalities (low FT3 and low TSH) are frequently seen in hospitalized patients of COVID-19. Although these abnormalities did not correlate with markers of inflammation, this study shows that low FT3 at admission independently predicts the severity of COVID-19.

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