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Caiyan Mo C Mo, Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China

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Tao Tong T Tong, Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China

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Ying Guo Y Guo, Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China

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Zheng Li Z Li, Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China

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Liyong Zhong L Zhong, Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China

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Purpose: The coexistence of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (GHPA) and Graves' disease (GD) is rare. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and thyroid function in patients with GHPA combined with GD and to explore the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Eleven patients with GHPA combined with GD during 2015-2022 were collected by searching the medical record system of Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University. Changes in GH/IGF-1 levels and thyroid function were compared before and after the application of antithyroid drugs (ATD) and before and after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) or somatostatin analogue (SSA) treatment, respectively.

Results: After the application of ATD, with the decrease of thyroid hormone levels, GH/IGF-1 levels also decreased gradually. In patients without ATD application, after surgery or SSA treatment, thyroid hormone levels decreased as GH/IGF-1 decreased.

Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism due to GD promotes the secretion of GH/IGF-1, and when thyroid hormone levels were decreased by the use of ATD, GH and IGF-1 levels were also decreased, suggesting that thyroid hormones may influence the synthesis and secretion of GH/IGF-1. The use of ATD to control thyrotoxicosis before TSS is not only beneficial in reducing the risk of anesthesia, but may help to promote biochemical control of GHPA. On the other hand, high levels of GH/IGF-1 in patients with GHPA also exacerbate GD hyperthyroidism, which is ameliorated by a decrease in GH/IGF-1 levels by TSS or SSA treatment, suggesting that the GH/IGF-1 axis promotes growth, thyroid function, and thyroid hormone metabolism.

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Simone Martins de Castro Hospital Materno Infantil Presidente Vargas, Newborn Screening Referral Center, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Department of Analysis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), School of Pharmacy, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Paloma Wiest Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Poli Mara Spritzer Division of Endocrinology, Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Cristiane Kopacek Hospital Materno Infantil Presidente Vargas, Newborn Screening Referral Center, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Department of Pediatrics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Medical School, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) occurs due to enzyme defects in adrenal steroidogenesis. The 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 90–95% of cases, triggering accumulation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). Early diagnosis through neonatal screening allows adequate treatment and reduced mortality. The purpose of the study was to determine 17-OHP cutoffs for the diagnosis of CAH in a public newborn screening program in Southern Brazil. A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze 17-OHP levels in dried blood samples collected on filter paper of 317,745 newborns screened at a public newborn screening center from May 2014 to April 2017. Neonatal 17-OHP was measured in DBS samples using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (GSP® kit 3305-0010; PerkinElmer). Different cutoffs were determined and stratified by birth weight. The incidence of CAH was 1:15,887 live births in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, with 20 cases of classical CAH diagnosed during the study period. Most newborns (80.73%) were white, and the prematurity rate was 9.8% in the study population. The combination of different percentiles, 98.5th for birth weight 2001–2500 g and 99.8th for the other birth weight groups, decreased false-positive results and increased specificity compared with current reference values to identify classical CAH cases. The local 17-OHP cutoffs determined were higher than those currently used by this screening program for all birth weight groups. The calculation of reference values from local population data and the combination of percentiles proved to be a valuable tool for proper diagnosis of CAH and reduction in the number of false positives.

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Lisa Arnetz Departments of Endocrinology, Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Metabolism and Diabetes
Departments of Endocrinology, Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Metabolism and Diabetes

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Neda Rajamand Ekberg Departments of Endocrinology, Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Metabolism and Diabetes
Departments of Endocrinology, Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Metabolism and Diabetes

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Kerstin Brismar Departments of Endocrinology, Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Metabolism and Diabetes
Departments of Endocrinology, Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Metabolism and Diabetes

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Michael Alvarsson Departments of Endocrinology, Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Metabolism and Diabetes
Departments of Endocrinology, Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Metabolism and Diabetes

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Objective

Dysfunction of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of T2D and gender on the HPA axis.

Methods

Synthetic ACTH (1 μg) was administered to 21 subjects with T2D (age 62 (54–70) years, 11 men/ten women, HbA1c 49±2 mmol/mol, treated with diet or oral antidiabetic drugs) and 38 controls (age 58 (41–67) years, 20 men/18 women). Fasting basal B-glucose, serum cortisol, insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP1 concentrations were measured, and sampling for all but IGF1 was repeated 30, 60, and 90 min after ACTH injection. Patients took 0.25 mg dexamethasone at 2200–2300 h and returned the next morning for the measurement of serum cortisol concentration.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Results

Patients with T2D had similar fasting serum cortisol, IGF1 and IGFBP1 concentrations; however, serum cortisol concentration after administration of dexamethasone did not differ between the groups. Healthy women exhibited higher peak cortisol levels compared with healthy men (675±26 vs 582±21 nmol/l, P=0.014), while the peak levels were equally high in men and women with T2D, resulting in a higher peak level in men with T2D compared with healthy men (691±42 vs 582±21 nmol/l, P=0.024). Serum cortisol concentration after administration of dexamethasone did not differ between the groups, nor did IGF1 and IGFBP1.

Novelty of the findings

Some studies have previously indicated disturbed regulation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, much remains unknown in this area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the gender difference in the adrenal response to ACTH (with greater reactivity in women) is abolished in T2D. While the clinical implications cannot be determined by this paper, it is known that gender differences exist in the pathogenesis and complications of T2D. Thus, our findings suggest that further research into gender differences in the HPA axis is warranted.

Conclusions

Gender differences in adrenal response to ACTH were abolished in T2D. Men with T2D had a higher peak cortisol compared with controls. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical implications.

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Robert Rapaport Division of Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes, Mount Sinai Kravis Children’s Hospital and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

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Jan M Wit Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Martin O Savage Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine & Dentistry, London, UK

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The terms ‘idiopathic short stature’ (ISS) and ‘small for gestational age’ (SGA) were first used in the 1970s and 1980s. ISS described non-syndromic short children with undefined aetiology who did not have growth hormone (GH) deficiency, chromosomal defects, chronic illness, dysmorphic features or low birth weight. Despite originating in the pre-molecular era, ISS is still used as a diagnostic label today. The term ‘SGA’ was adopted by paediatric endocrinologists to describe children born with low birth weight and/or length, some of whom may experience lack of catch-up growth and present with short stature. GH treatment was approved by the FDA for short children born SGA in 2001, and by the EMA in 2003, and for the treatment of ISS in the US, but not Europe, in 2003. These approvals strengthened the terms ‘SGA’ and ‘ISS’ as clinical entities. While clinical and hormonal diagnostic techniques remain important, it is the emergence of genetic investigations that have led to numerous molecular discoveries in both ISS and SGA subjects. The primary message of this article is that the labels ISS and SGA are not definitive diagnoses. We propose that the three disciplines of clinical evaluation, hormonal investigation and genetic sequencing should have equal status in the hierarchy of short stature assessments and should complement each other to identify the true pathogenesis in poorly growing patients.

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Caroline Culen University Clinic of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Diana-Alexandra Ertl University Clinic of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Katharina Schubert University Clinic of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Lisa Bartha-Doering University Clinic of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Gabriele Haeusler University Clinic of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Turner syndrome (TS), although considered a rare disease, is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in women, with an incident of 1 in 2500 female births. TS is characterized by distinctive physical features such as short stature, ovarian dysgenesis, an increased risk for heart and renal defects as well as a specific cognitive and psychosocial phenotype. Given the complexity of the condition, patients face manifold difficulties which increase over the lifespan. Furthermore, failures during the transitional phase to adult care result in moderate health outcomes and decreased quality of life. Guidelines on the optimal screening procedures and medical treatment are easy to find. However, recommendations for the treatment of the incriminating psychosocial aspects in TS are scarce. In this work, we first reviewed the literature on the cognitive and psychosocial development of girls with TS compared with normal development, from disclosure to young adulthood, and then introduce a psychosocial approach to counseling and treating patients with TS, including recommendations for age-appropriate psychological diagnostics. With this work, we aim to facilitate the integration of emphasized psychosocial care in state-of-the-art treatment for girls and women with TS.

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