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M Ahmid Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Royal Hospital for Children, School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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C G Perry Department of Endocrinology, Queen Elizabeth University Hospitals, Glasgow, UK

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S F Ahmed Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Royal Hospital for Children, School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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M G Shaikh Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Royal Hospital for Children, School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

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Until quite recently, the management of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) had focussed on the use of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy to normalise final adult height. However, research over the past two decades that has demonstrated deficits in bone health and cardiac function, as well as impaired quality of life in adults with childhood-onset GHD (CO-GHD), has questioned this practice. Some of these studies suggested that there may be short-term benefits of rhGH in certain group of adolescents with GHD during transition, although the impact of GHD and replacement during the transition period has not been adequately investigated and its long-term benefits remain unclear. GH therapy remains expensive and well-designed long-term studies are needed to determine the cost effectiveness and clinical benefit of ongoing rhGH during transition and further into adulthood. In the absence of compelling data to justify widespread continuation of rhGH into adult life, there are several questions related to its use that remain unanswered. This paper reviews the effects of growth hormone deficiency on bone health, cardiovascular function, metabolic profile and quality of life during transition and young adulthood.

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Alexandra Kiess Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Heart Center Leipzig, University of Leipzig, Strümpellstraße, Leipzig, Germany
Department of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, University Hospital Jena, Am Klinikum, Jena, Germany

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Jessica Green Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Eaton Road Liverpool, Great Britain

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Anja Willenberg Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Molecular Diagnostics (ILM), University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse, Leipzig, Germany

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Uta Ceglarek Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Molecular Diagnostics (ILM), University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse, Leipzig, Germany

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Ingo Dähnert Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Heart Center Leipzig, University of Leipzig, Strümpellstraße, Leipzig, Germany

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Wieland Kiess LIFE Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse, Leipzig, Germany
Department of Women and Child Health, Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Center for Pediatric Research (CPL), University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse, Leipzig, Germany

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Mandy Vogel LIFE Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases, University of Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse, Leipzig, Germany
Department of Women and Child Health, Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Center for Pediatric Research (CPL), University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse, Leipzig, Germany

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Background and objectives

As part of the LIFE Child study, we previously described the associations between N-terminal-pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and hs-troponin T (hs-TnT) levels and an individual’s sex, age and pubertal status, as well as with body mass index (BMI) and serum lipid levels. For NT-proBNP, we found inverse associations with advancing puberty, increasing BMI and serum lipid levels. These findings led us to further question the putative influences of the developing individual’s metabolic and growth status as represented by levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1-binding protein-3 (IGF-BP3) as well as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and Cystatin C (CysC).

Material and methods

Serum values, medical history and anthropometric data provided by 2522 children aged 0.25–18 years were collected and analyzed as per study protocol.

Results

A strong negative association between NT-proBNP values and IGF-1, IGF-BP3 and HbA1c levels was identified. For IGF-BP3, this interaction was modulated by sex and age, for HbA1c only by age. For hs-TnT, a positive association was found with IGF-BP3, IGF-1 and CysC. The association between hs-TnT and IGF-1 was sex dependent. The association between CysC and hs-TnT was stronger in girls, but the interaction with age was only seen in boys. Between hs-TnT and HbA1c, the association was significantly negative and modulated by age.

Conclusion

Based on our large pediatric cohort, we could identify age- and sex-dependent interactions between the metabolic status represented by IGF-1, IGF-BP3, CysC and HbA1c levels and the cardiac markers NT-proBNP and hs-TnT.

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Ann-Cathrin Koschker Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Bodo Warrings Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Caroline Morbach Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Florian Seyfried Department of General, Visceral, Transplant, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Nicole Rickert Department of Radiology, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Pius Jung Division of Pneumology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Andreas Geier Division of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Ulrich Dischinger Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Maike Krauthausen Department of General Practice, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Martin J Herrmann Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Christine Stier Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Department of General, Visceral, Transplant, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Stefan Frantz Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Uwe Malzahn Center for Clinical Trials, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Stefan Störk Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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Martin Fassnacht Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University & University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

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the WAS Study Group
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Obesity is a rapidly emerging health problem and an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Bariatric surgery profoundly reduces body weight and mitigates sequelae of obesity. The open, randomized controlled Würzburg Adipositas Studie (WAS) trial compares the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) vs psychotherapy-supported lifestyle modification in morbidly obese patients. The co-primary endpoint addresses 1-year changes in cardiovascular function (peak VO2 during cardiopulmonary exercise testing) and the quality of life (QoL) (Short-Form-36 physical functioning scale). Prior to randomization, all included patients underwent a multimodal anti-obesity treatment for 6–12 months. Thereafter, the patients were randomized and followed through month 12 to collect the primary endpoints. Afterwards, patients in the lifestyle group could opt for surgery, and final visit was scheduled for all patients 24 months after randomization. Sample size calculation suggested to enroll 90 patients in order to arrive at minimally 22 patients per group evaluable for the primary endpoint. Secondary objectives were to quantify changes in body weight, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic function (by echocardiography and cardiac MRI), functional brain MRI, psychometric scales, and endothelial and metabolic function. WAS enrolled 93 patients (72 women, median age 38 years, BMI 47.5 kg/m2) exhibiting a relevantly compromised exercise capacity (median peakVO2 18.3 mL/min/kg) and the QoL (median physical functioning scale 50). WAS is the first randomized controlled trial focusing on the effects of RYGB on cardiovascular function beyond hypertension. In addition, it will provide a wealth of high-quality data on the cerebral, psychiatric, hepatic, and metabolic function in obese patients after RYGB.

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Gabriella Oliveira Lima Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Alex Luiz Menezes da Silva Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Julianne Elba Cunha Azevedo Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Chirlene Pinheiro Nascimento Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Luana Rodrigues Vieira Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Akira Otake Hamoy Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Luan Oliveira Ferreira Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Verônica Regina Lobato Oliveira Bahia Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Animal Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Nilton Akio Muto Amazon Bioactive Compounds Valorization Center, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Dielly Catrina Favacho Lopes Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Moisés Hamoy Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology of Natural Products, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

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Low plasma levels of vitamin D causes bone mineral change that can precipitate osteopenia and osteoporosis and could aggravate autoimmune diseases, hypertension and diabetes. The demand for vitamin D supplementation becomes necessary; however, the consumption of vitamin D is not without risks, which its toxicity could have potentially serious consequences related to hypervitaminosis D, such as hypercalcemia and cerebral alterations. Thus, the present study describes the electroencephalographic changes caused by supraphysiological doses of vitamin D in the brain electrical dynamics and the electrocardiographic changes. After 4 days of treatment with vitamin D at a dose of 25,000 IU/kg, the serum calcium levels found were increased in comparison with the control group. The electrocorticogram analysis found a reduction in wave activity in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. For ECG was observed changes with shortened QT follow-up, which could be related to serum calcium concentration. This study presented important evidence about the cerebral and cardiac alterations caused by high doses of vitamin D, indicating valuable parameters in the screening and decision-making process for diagnosing patients with symptoms suggestive of intoxication.

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Veronica Astro Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

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Elisabetta Fiacco Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

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Kelly Johanna Cardona-Londoño Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

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Ilario De Toma Sequentia Biotech SL, Barcelona, Spain

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Hams Saeed Alzahrani Department of Genetic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Jumana Alama Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Amal Kokandi Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Taha Abo-Almagd Abdel-Meguid Hamoda Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Majed Felemban Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Center of Innovation in Personalized Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Antonio Adamo Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

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Objective

The transcriptional landscape of Klinefelter syndromeduring early embryogenesis remains elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of X chromosome overdosage in 47,XXY males induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) obtained from patients with different genomic backgrounds and ethnicities.

Design and method

We derived and characterized 15 iPSC lines from four Saudi 47,XXY KS patients and one Saudi 46,XY male. We performed a comparative transcriptional analysis using the Saudi KS-iPSCs and a cohort of European and North American KS-iPSCs.

Results

We identified a panel of X-linked and autosomal genes commonly dysregulated in Saudi and European/North American KS-iPSCs vs 46,XY controls. Our findings demonstrate that seven PAR1 and nine non-PAR escape genes are consistently dysregulated and mostly display comparable transcriptional levels in both groups. Finally, we focused on genes commonly dysregulated in both iPSC cohorts and identified several gene-ontology categories highly relevant to KS physiopathology, including aberrant cardiac muscle contractility, skeletal muscle defects, abnormal synaptic transmission, and behavioral alterations.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that a transcriptomic signature of X chromosome overdosage in KS is potentially attributable to a subset of X-linked genes sensitive to sex chromosome dosage and escaping X inactivation, regardless of the geographical area of origin, ethnicity, and genetic makeup.

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Zhou-Qing Kang Department of Nursing, Jin Qiu Hospital of Liaoning Province, Geriatric Hospital of Liaoning Province, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China

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Jia-Ling Huo Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jin Qiu Hospital of Liaoning Province, Geriatric Hospital of Liaoning Province, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China

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Xiao-Jie Zhai Department of Nursing, Jin Qiu Hospital of Liaoning Province, Geriatric Hospital of Liaoning Province, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China

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Background

The optimal glycemic target during the perioperative period is still controversial. We aimed to explore the effects of tight glycemic control (TGC) on surgical mortality and morbidity.

Methods

PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL were searched from January 1, 1946 to February 28, 2018. Appropriate trails comparing the postoperative outcomes (mortality, hypoglycemic events, acute kidney injury, etc.) between different levels of TGC and liberal glycemic control were identified. Quality assessments were performed with the Jadad scale combined with the allocation concealment evaluation. Pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% CI were calculated using random effects models. Heterogeneity was detected by the I2 test.

Results

Twenty-six trials involving a total of 9315 patients were included in the final analysis. The overall mortality did not differ between tight and liberal glycemic control (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.78–1.07; I 2 = 20.1%). Among subgroup analyses, obvious decreased risks of mortality were found in the short-term mortality, non-diabetic conditions, cardiac surgery conditions and compared to the very liberal glycemic target. Furthermore, TGC was associated with decreased risks for acute kidney injury, sepsis, surgical site infection, atrial fibrillation and increased risks of hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia.

Conclusions

Compared to liberal control, perioperative TGC (the upper level of glucose goal ≤150 mg/dL) was associated with significant reduction of short-term mortality, cardic surgery mortality, non-diabetic patients mortality and some postoperative complications. In spite of increased risks of hypoglycemic events, perioperative TGC will benefits patients when it is done carefully.

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Merlin C Thomas Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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Brendon L Neuen The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Stephen M Twigg The University of Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Mark E Cooper Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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Sunil V Badve The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Department of Renal Medicine, St George Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Sodium‐glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently emerged as an effective means to protect kidney function in people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this review, we explore the role of SGLT2 inhibition in these individuals. SGLT2 inhibitors specifically act to inhibit sodium and glucose reabsorption in the early proximal tubule of the renal nephron. Although originally developed as glucose-lowering agents through their ability to induce glycosuria, it became apparent in cardiovascular outcome trials that the trajectory of kidney function decline was significantly slowed and the incidence of serious falls in kidney function was reduced in participants receiving an SGLT2 inhibitor. These observations have recently led to specific outcome trials in participants with CKD, including DAPA-CKD, CREDENCE and EMPA-KIDNEY, and real-world studies, like CVD-REAL-3, that have confirmed the observation of kidney benefits in this setting. In response, recent KDIGO Guidelines have recommended the use of SGLT2 inhibitors as first-line therapy in patients with CKD, alongside statins, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors and multifactorial risk factor management as indicated. However, SGLT2 inhibitors remain significantly underutilized in the setting of CKD. Indeed, an inertia paradox exists, with patients with more severe disease less likely to receive an SGLT2 inhibitor. Concerns regarding safety appear unfounded, as acute kidney injury, hyperkalaemia, major acute cardiovascular events and cardiac death in patients with CKD appear to be lower following SGLT2 inhibition. The first-in-class indication of dapagliflozin for CKD may begin a new approach to managing kidney disease in type 2 diabetes.

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Myrtille Fouché Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Yves Bouffard Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Mary-Charlotte Le Goff Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Johanne Prothet Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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François Malavieille Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Pierre Sagnard Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Françoise Christin Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Davy Hayi-Slayman Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Arnaud Pasquer Department of Visceral Surgery, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Gilles Poncet Department of Visceral Surgery, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Thomas Walter Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Oncology, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France

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Thomas Rimmelé Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France
EA 7426 Hospices Civils de Lyon-University Claude Bernard Lyon 1-Biomérieux ‘Pathophysiology of Injury-Induced Immunosuppression’ Pi3, Lyon, France

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Only few descriptions of intraoperative carcinoid syndrome (ioCS) have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to describe ioCS. A second aim was to identify risk factors of ioCS. We retrospectively analysed patients operated for small-bowel neuroendocrine tumour in our institution between 2007 and 2015, and receiving our preventive local regimen of octreotide continuous administration. ioCS was defined as highly probable in case of rapid (<5 min) arterial blood pressure changes ≥40%, not explained by surgical/anaesthetic management and regressive ≥20% after octreotide bolus injection. Probable cases were ioCS which did not meet all criteria of highly-probable ioCS. Suspected ioCS were detected on the anaesthesia record by an injection of octreotide due to a manifestation which did not meet the criteria for highly-probable or probable ioCS. A total of 81 patients (liver metastases: 59, prior carcinoid syndrome: 49, carcinoid heart disease: 7) were included; 139 ioCS occurred in 45 patients: 45 highly probable, 67 probable and 27 suspected. ioCs was hypertensive (91%) and/or hypotensive (29%). There was no factor, including the use of vasopressors, significantly associated with the occurrence of an ioCS. All surgeries were completed and one patient died from cardiac failure 4 days after surgery. After preoperative octreotide continuous infusion, ioCS were mainly hypertensive. No ioCS risk factors, including vasopressor use, were identified. No intraoperative carcinoid crisis occurred, suggesting the clinical relevance of a standardized octreotide prophylaxis protocol.

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Sharmin Jahan Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Victoria, Australia
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Jun Yang Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Victoria, Australia

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Jinbo Hu Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

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Qifu Li Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

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Peter J Fuller Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Victoria, Australia

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Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension and is often underdiagnosed. This condition is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in comparison to age and blood pressure matched individuals with essential hypertension (EH). The diagnostic pathway for PA consists of three phases: screening, confirmatory testing, and subtyping. The lack of specificity in the screening step, which relies on the aldosterone to renin ratio, necessitates confirmatory testing. The Endocrine Society’s clinical practice guideline suggests four confirmatory tests, including the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), saline suppression test (SST), captopril challenge test (CCT), and oral sodium loading test (SLT). There is no universally accepted choice of confirmatory test, with practices varying among centers. The SST and FST are commonly used, but they can be resource-intensive, carry risks such as volume overload or hypokalemia, and are contraindicated in severe/uncontrolled HTN as well as in cardiac and renal impairment. In contrast, CCT is a safe and inexpensive alternative that can be performed in an outpatient setting and can be applied when other tests are contraindicated. Despite its simplicity and convenience, the variability in captopril dose, testing posture, and diagnostic threshold limit its widespread use. This narrative review evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of the CCT across different populations, addresses controversies in its usage, and proposes recommendations for its use in the diagnosis of PA. Furthermore, suggestions for future research aimed at promoting the wider utilization of the CCT as a simpler, safer, and more cost-effective diagnostic test are discussed.

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Karoline Winckler Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Lise Tarnow Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Louise Lundby-Christensen Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Thomas P Almdal Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Niels Wiinberg Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Pia Eiken Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology
Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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Trine W Boesgaard Department of Cardiology, Department of Research, Institute of Clinical Studies, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Nephrology and Endocrinology

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the CIMT trial group
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Despite aggressive treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) still have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between total (25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D)) and risk of CVD in patients with T2D. Secondary objective was to examine the association between 25(OH)D and bone health. A Danish cohort of patients with T2D participating in a randomised clinical trial were analysed. In total 415 patients (68% men, age 60±9 years (mean±s.d.), duration of diabetes 12±6 years), including 294 patients (71%) treated with insulin. Carotid intima–media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness (carotid artery distensibility coefficient (DC) and Young's elastic modulus (YEM)) were measured by ultrasound scan as indicators of CVD. Bone health was assessed by bone mineral density and trabecular bone score measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In this cohort, 214 patients (52%) were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l). Carotid IMT was 0.793±0.137 mm, DC was 0.0030±0.001 mmHg, YEM was 2354±1038 mmHg and 13 (3%) of the patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis. A 25(OH)D level was not associated with carotid IMT or arterial stiffness (P>0.3) or bone health (P>0.6) after adjustment for CVD risk factors. In conclusion, 25(OH)D status was not associated with carotid IMT, arterial stiffness or bone health in this cohort of patients with T2D. To explore these associations and the association with other biomarkers further, multicentre studies with large numbers of patients are required.

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