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Esben Thyssen Vestergaard Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Morten B Krag Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Morten M Poulsen Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Steen B Pedersen Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Niels Moller Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Jens Otto Lunde Jorgensen Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Niels Jessen Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Medical Research Laboratories, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

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Objective

Supraphysiological levels of ghrelin and GH induce insulin resistance. Serum levels of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) correlate inversely with insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether ghrelin and GH affect RBP4 levels in human subjects.

Materials and methods

To study GH-independent effects of ghrelin, seven hypopituitary men undergoing replacement therapy with GH and hydrocortisone were given ghrelin (5 pmol/kg per min) and saline infusions for 300 min in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Circulating RBP4 levels were measured at baseline and during a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp on both study days. To study the direct effects of GH, nine healthy men were treated with GH (2 mg at 2200 h) and placebo for 8 days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Serum RBP4 levels were measured before and after treatment, and insulin sensitivity was measured by the hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp technique.

Results

Ghrelin acutely decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Serum RBP4 concentrations decreased in response to insulin infusion during the saline experiment (mg/l): 43.2±4.3 (baseline) vs 40.4±4.2 (clamp), P<0.001, but this effect was abrogated during ghrelin infusion (mg/l): 42.4±4.5 (baseline) vs 42.9±4.7 (clamp), P=0.73. In healthy subjects, serum RBP4 levels were not affected by GH administration (mg/l): 41.7±4.1 (GH) vs 43.8±4.6 (saline), P=0.09, although GH induced insulin resistance.

Conclusions

i) Serum RBP4 concentrations decrease in response to hyperinsulinemia, ii) ghrelin abrogates the inhibitory effect of insulin on circulating RBP4 concentrations, and iii) ghrelin as well as GH acutely induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle without significant changes in circulating RBP4 levels.

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I Azzam Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel

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S Gilad Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel

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R Limor Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel

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N Stern Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Y Greenman Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Ghrelin plasma concentration increases in parallel to cortisol after a standardized psychological stress in humans, but the physiological basis of this interaction is unknown. We aimed to elucidate this question by studying the ghrelin response to pharmacological manipulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Six lean, healthy male volunteers were examined under four experimental conditions. Blood samples were collected every 30 min for two sequential periods of two hours. Initially, a baseline period was followed by intravenous injection of a synthetic analog of ACTH (250 μg). Subsequently, a single dose of metyrapone was administered at midnight and in the following morning, blood samples were collected for 2 h, followed by an intravenous injection of hydrocortisone (100 mg) with continued sampling. We show that increased cortisol serum levels secondary to ACTH stimulation or hydrocortisone administration are positively associated with plasma ghrelin levels, whereas central stimulation of the HPA axis by blocking cortisol synthesis with metyrapone is associated with decreased plasma ghrelin levels. Collectively, this suggests that HPA-axis-mediated elevations in ghrelin plasma concentration require increased peripheral cortisol levels, independent of central elevation of ACTH and possibly CRH levels.

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Metin Guclu Health Sciences University, Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Education and Training Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Bursa, Turkey

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Sinem Kiyici Health Sciences University, Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Education and Training Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Bursa, Turkey

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Zulfiye Gul Department of Pharmacology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Bursa, Turkey

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Sinan Cavun Department of Pharmacology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Bursa, Turkey

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Aim

In the present study, we investigated the long-term effects of exenatide treatment on serum fasting ghrelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

Type 2 diabetic patients, who were using metformin with and without the other antihyperglycemic drugs on a stable dose for at least 3 months, were enrolled in the study. BMI>35 kg/m2 and HbA1c>7.0% were the additional inclusion criteria. Oral antihyperglycemic drugs, other than metformin, were stopped, and metformin treatment was continued at 2000 mg per day. Exenatide treatment was initiated at 5 µg per dose subcutaneously (sc) twice daily, and after one month, the dose of exenatide was increased to 10 µg twice daily. Changes in anthropometric variables, glycemic control, lipid parameters and total ghrelin levels were evaluated at baseline and following 12 weeks of treatment.

Results

Thirty-eight patients (male/female = 7/31) entered the study. The mean age of patients was 50.5 ± 8.8 years with a mean diabetes duration of 8.5 ± 4.9 years. The mean BMI was 41.6 ± 6.3 kg/m2 and the mean HbA1c of patients was 8.9 ± 1.4%. The mean change in the weight of patients was −5.6 kg and the percentage change in weight was −5.2 ± 3.7% following 12 weeks of treatment. BMI, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels of patients were decreased significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001; respectively), while there was no change in lipid parameters. Serum fasting ghrelin levels were significantly suppressed following 12 weeks of exenatide treatment compared with baseline values (328.4 ± 166.8 vs 245.3 ± 164.8 pg/mL) (P = 0.024).

Conclusion

These results suggest that the effects of exenatide on weight loss may be related with the suppression of serum fasting ghrelin levels, which is an orexigenic peptide.

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Roxanne C S van Adrichem Department of Internal Medicine, Sector of Endocrinology, ENETS Centre of Excellence for Neuroendocrine Tumors, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Aart Jan van der Lely Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Martin Huisman Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Piet Kramer Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Richard A Feelders Department of Internal Medicine, Sector of Endocrinology, ENETS Centre of Excellence for Neuroendocrine Tumors, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Patric J D Delhanty Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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Wouter W de Herder Department of Internal Medicine, Sector of Endocrinology, ENETS Centre of Excellence for Neuroendocrine Tumors, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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To date, the value of fasting plasma acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG) as potential novel biomarkers in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is unknown. The aims of this study are to (i) compare fasting AG and UAG levels between nonobese, nondiabetic NET patients (N=28) and age- (±3 years) and sex-matched nonobese, nondiabetic controls (N=28); and (ii) study the relationship between AG, UAG, and AG/UAG ratios and biochemical (chromogranin-A (CgA) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels) and clinical parameters (age at diagnosis, sex, primary tumor location, carcinoid syndrome, ENETS TNM classification, Ki-67 proliferation index, grading, prior incomplete surgery) in NET patients. Fasting venous blood samples (N=56) were collected and directly stabilized with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride after withdrawal. Plasma AG and UAG levels were determined by ELISA. Expression of ghrelin was examined in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry. There were no significant differences between NET patients and controls in AG (median: 62.5 pg/mL, IQR: 33.1–112.8 vs median: 57.2pg/mL, IQR: 26.7–128.3, P=0.66) and UAG in levels (median: 76.6pg/mL, IQR: 35.23–121.7 vs median: 64.9, IQR: 27.5–93.1, P=0.44). No significant correlations were found between AG, UAG, and AG/UAG ratios versus biochemical and clinical parameters in NET patients with the exception of age at diagnosis (AG: ρ= −0.47, P=0.012; AG/UAG ratio: ρ= −0.50, P=0.007) and baseline chromogranin-A levels (AG/UAG ratio: ρ= −0.44, P=0.019). In our view, fasting plasma acylated and unacylated ghrelin appear to have no value as diagnostic biomarkers in the clinical follow-up of patients with NETs.

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Leyre Lorente-Poch Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Sílvia Rifà-Terricabras Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Juan José Sancho Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Danilo Torselli-Valladares Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

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Sofia González-Ortiz Department of Radiology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

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Antonio Sitges-Serra Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Objective:

Permanent hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon disease resulting most frequently from neck surgery. It has been associated with visceral calcifications but few studies have specifically this in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications in patients with long-term post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism compared with a control population.

Design:

Case–control study.

Methods:

A cross-sectional review comparing 29 consecutive patients with permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism followed-up in a tertiary reference unit for Endocrine Surgery with a contemporary control group of 501 patients who had an emergency brain CT scan. Clinical variables and prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications were recorded.

Results:

From a cohort of 46 patients diagnosed with permanent hypoparathyroidism, 29 were included in the study. The mean duration of disease was 9.2 ± 7 years. Age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia were similarly distributed in case and control groups. The prevalence of carotid artery and basal ganglia calcifications was 4 and 20 times more frequent in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism, respectively. After propensity score matching of the 28 the female patients, 68 controls were matched for age and presence of cardiovascular factors. Cases showed a four-fold prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications, whereas that of carotid calcifications was similar between cases and controls.

Conclusion:

A high prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications was observed in patients with post-surgical permanent hypoparathyroidism. It remains unclear whether carotid artery calcification may also be increased.

Open access
Mardia López-Alarcón Unidad de Investigación Médica en Nutrición, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Jessie N Zurita-Cruz Unidad de Investigación Médica en Nutrición, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Alonso Torres-Rodríguez Escuela Española de Desarrollo Transpersonal, Madrid, España

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Karla Bedia-Mejía Unidad de Investigación Médica en Nutrición, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Manuel Pérez-Güemez Unidad de Investigación Médica en Nutrición, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Leonel Jaramillo-Villanueva Departamento de Psiquiatría, Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México, Mexico

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Mario E Rendón-Macías Universidad Panamericana, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela de Medicina, México, Mexico

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Jose R Fernández Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

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Patricia Martínez-Maroñas Escuela Española de Desarrollo Transpersonal, Madrid, España

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Childhood obesity is associated with stress. However, most treatment strategies include only dietary and physical activity approaches. Mindfulness may assist in weight reduction, but its effectiveness is unclear. We assessed the effect of mindfulness on stress, appetite regulators, and weight of children with obesity and anxiety. A clinical study was conducted in a pediatric hospital. Eligible children were 10–14 years old, BMI ≥95th percentile, Spence anxiety score ≥55, and who were not taking any medication or supplementation. Participants were assigned to receive an 8-week conventional nutritional intervention (CNI) or an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention plus CNI (MND-CNI). Anthropometry, body composition, leptin, insulin, ghrelin, cortisol, and Spence scores were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Anthropometry was analyzed again 8 weeks after concluding interventions. Log-transformed and delta values were calculated for analysis. Thirty-three MND-CNI and 12 CNI children finished interventions; 17 MND-CNI children accomplished 16 weeks. At the end of the intervention, significant reductions in anxiety score (−6.21 ± 1.10), BMI (−0.45 ± 1.2 kg/m2), body fat (−1.28 ± 0.25%), ghrelin (−0.71 ± 0.37 pg/mL), and serum cortisol (−1.42 ± 0.94 µg/dL) were observed in MND-CNI children. Changes in anxiety score, ghrelin, and cortisol were different between groups (P < 0.05). Children who completed 16 weeks decreased BMI after intervention (−0.944 ± 0.20 kg/m2, P < 0.001) and remained lower 8 weeks later (−0.706 ± 0.19 kg/m2, P = 0.001). We concluded that mindfulness is a promising tool as an adjunctive therapy for childhood obesity. However, our findings need confirmation in a larger sample population.

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Diana-Alexandra Ertl Department of Pulmonology, Allergology and Endocrinology, University Clinic for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Andreas Gleiss Center for Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Intelligent Systems, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Katharina Schubert Department of Pulmonology, Allergology and Endocrinology, University Clinic for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Caroline Culen Department of Pulmonology, Allergology and Endocrinology, University Clinic for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Peer Hauck Pediatric Heart Center Vienna, University Clinic for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Johannes Ott Clinic Division for Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Alois Gessl Division of Endocrinology, University Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Gabriele Haeusler Department of Pulmonology, Allergology and Endocrinology, University Clinic for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Background

Previous studies have shown that only a minority of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have adequate medical care after transfer to adult care.

Aim of this study

To assess the status of medical follow-up and quality of life (QoL) in adult women diagnosed with TS and followed up until transfer. To compare the subjective and objective view of the medical care quality and initiate improvements based on patients’ experiences and current recommendations.

Methods

39 adult women with TS out of 64 patients contacted were seen for a clinical and laboratory check, cardiac ultrasound, standardized and structured questionnaires (SF-36v2 and Beck depression inventory).

Results

7/39 of the patients were not being followed medically at all. Only 2/39 consulted all the specialists recommended. Comorbidities were newly diagnosed in 27/39 patients; of these, 11 related to the cardiovascular system. Patients in our cohort scored as high as the mean reference population for SF-36v2 in both mental and physical compartments. Obese participants had lower scores in the physical function section, whereas higher education was related to higher physical QoL scores. Adult height slightly correlated positively with physical health.

Conclusion

Medical follow-up was inadequate in our study cohort of adults with TS. Even though their medical follow-up was insufficient, these women felt adequately treated, leaving them vulnerable for premature illness. Initiatives in health autonomy and a structured transfer process as well as closer collaborations within specialities are urgently needed.

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Elin Kahlert Clinic of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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Martina Blaschke Clinic of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
Endokrinologikum Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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Knut Brockmann Interdisciplinary Pediatric Center for Children with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Chronic Disorders, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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Clemens Freiberg Interdisciplinary Pediatric Center for Children with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Chronic Disorders, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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Onno E Janssen Endokrinologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

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Nikolaus Stahnke Endokrinologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

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Domenika Strik Endokrinologikum Berlin, Berlin, Germany

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Martin Merkel Endokrinologikum Hannover, Hannover, Germany

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Alexander Mann Endokrinologikum Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

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Klaus-Peter Liesenkötter Endokrinologikum Berlin, Berlin, Germany

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Heide Siggelkow Clinic of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
Endokrinologikum Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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Objective

Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by the complete or partial loss of the second sex chromosome and associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations. We aimed to assess the medical care of adult patients with TS in Germany.

Design

Retrospective multicenter observational study.

Methods

Data were collected from medical records of 258 women with TS treated between 2001 and 2017 in five non-university endocrinologic centers in Germany.

Results

Mean age was 29.8 ± 11.6 years, mean height 152 ± 7.7 cm, and mean BMI 26.6 ± 6.3 kg/m2. The karyotype was known in 50% of patients. Information on cholesterol state, liver enzymes, and thyroid status was available in 81–98% of women with TS; autoimmune thyroiditis was diagnosed in 37%. Echocardiography was performed in 42% and cardiac MRI in 8.5%, resulting in a diagnosis of cardiovascular disorder in 28%. Data on growth hormone therapy were available for 40 patients (15%) and data concerning menarche in 157 patients (61%).

Conclusion

In 258 women with TS, retrospective analysis of healthcare data indicated that medical management was focused on endocrine manifestations. Further significant clinical features including cardiovascular disease, renal malformation, liver involvement, autoimmune diseases, hearing loss, and osteoporosis were only marginally if at all considered. Based on this evaluation and in accordance with recent guidelines, we compiled a documentation form facilitating the transition from pediatric to adult care and further medical management of TS patients. The foundation of Turner Centers in March 2019 will improve the treatment of TS women in Germany.

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Maxime Duval Department of Medicine, Clinique Jules Verne, Nantes, France

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Kalyane Bach-Ngohou Department of Biology, Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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Damien Masson Department of Biology, Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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Camille Guimard Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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Philippe Le Conte Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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David Trewick Department of Medicine, Clinique Jules Verne, Nantes, France
Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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Objective

Severe hypocalcemia (Ca <1.9 mmol/L) is often considered an emergency because of a potential risk of cardiac arrest or seizures. However, there is little evidence to support this. The aim of our study was to assess whether severe hypocalcemia was associated with immediately life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias or neurological complications.

Methods

A retrospective observational study was carried out over a 2-year period in the Adult Emergency Department (ED) of Nantes University Hospital. All patients who had a protein-corrected calcium concentration measure were eligible for inclusion. Patients with multiple myeloma were excluded. The primary outcome was the number of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and/or neurological complications during the stay in the ED.

Results

A total of 41,823 patients had protein-corrected calcium (pcCa) concentrations measured, 155 had severe hypocalcemia, 22 were excluded because of myeloma leaving 133 for analysis. Median pcCa concentration was 1.73 mmol/L (1.57–1.84). Seventeen (12.8%) patients presented a life-threatening condition, 14 (10.5%) neurological and 3 (2.2%) cardiac during ED stay. However, these complications could be explained by the presence of underlying co-morbidities and or electrolyte disturbances other than hypocalcemia. Overall, 24 (18%) patients died in hospital. Vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease and hypoparathyroidism were the most frequently found causes of hypocalcemia.

Conclusion

Thirteen percent of patients with severe hypocalcemia presented a life-threatening cardiac or neurological complication on the ED. However, a perfectly valid alternative cause could account for these complications. Further research is warranted to define the precise role of hypocalcemia.

Open access
M L M Barreto-Chaves Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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N Senger Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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M R Fevereiro Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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A C Parletta Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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A P C Takano Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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The cardiac growth process (hypertrophy) is a crucial phenomenon conserved across a wide array of species and is critically involved in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. This process enables an organism to adapt to changes in systemic demand and occurs due to a plethora of responses, depending on the type of signal or stimuli received. The growth of cardiac muscle cells in response to environmental conditions depends on the type, strength and duration of stimuli, and results in adaptive physiological responses or non-adaptive pathological responses. Thyroid hormones (TH) have a direct effect on the heart and induce a cardiac hypertrophy phenotype, which may evolve to heart failure. In this review, we summarize the literature on TH function in the heart by presenting results from experimental studies. We discuss the mechanistic aspects of TH associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, increased cardiac myocyte contractility and electrical remodeling, as well as the associated signaling pathways. In addition to classical crosstalk with the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), emerging work pointing to the new endocrine interaction between TH and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is also explored. Given the inflammatory potential of the angiotensin II peptide, this new interaction may open the door for new therapeutic approaches which target the key mechanisms responsible for TH-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

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