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Jens P Goetze
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Linda M Hilsted
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Jens F Rehfeld
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Urban Alehagen Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk. Assessment of cardiovascular mortality during the first 3 years of observation showed that CgA measurement contained useful information with a hazard ratio (HR) of 5.4 (95% CI 1.7–16.4) (CgA confirm). In a multivariate setting, the corresponding HR was 5.9 (95% CI 1.8–19.1). When adding N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) to the model, CgA confirm still possessed prognostic information (HR: 6.1; 95% CI 1.8–20.7). The result for predicting all-cause mortality displayed the same pattern. ROC analyses in comparison to NT-proBNP to identify patients on top of clinical variables at risk of cardiovascular death within 5 years of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality.

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Akinori Sairaku Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan

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Yukiko Nakano Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan

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Yuko Uchimura Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan

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Takehito Tokuyama Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan

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Hiroshi Kawazoe Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan

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Yoshikazu Watanabe Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan

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Hiroya Matsumura Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan

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Yasuki Kihara Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan

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Background

The impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on the cardiovascular risk is still debated. We aimed to measure the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and the left atrial (LA) pressure.

Methods

The LA pressures and thyroid function were measured in consecutive patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, who did not have any known heart failure, structural heart disease, or overt thyroid disease.

Results

Subclinical hypothyroidism (4.5≤ thyroid-stimulating hormone <19.9 mIU/L) was present in 61 (13.0%) of the 471 patients included. More subclinical hypothyroidism patients than euthyroid patients (55.7% vs 40.2%; P=0.04).’euthyroid patients had persistent or long-standing persistent AF (55.7% vs 40.2%; P = 0.04). The mean LA pressure (10.9 ± 4.7 vs 9.1 ± 4.3 mmHg; P = 0.002) and LA V-wave pressure (17.4 ± 6.5 vs 14.3 ± 5.9 mmHg; P < 0.001) were, respectively, higher in the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism than in the euthyroid patients. After an adjustment for potential confounders, the LA pressures remained significantly higher in the subclinical hypothyroidism patients. A multiple logistic regression model showed that subclinical hypothyroidism was independently associated with a mean LA pressure of >18 mmHg (odds ratio 3.94, 95% CI 1.28 11.2; P = 0.02).

Conclusions

Subclinical hypothyroidism may increase the LA pressure in AF patients.

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Xiaoyi Qi Departments of Cardiology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China
Medical College, Shantou University, Shantou, China

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Liangxian Qiu Departments of Cardiology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China

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Shijia Wang Departments of Cardiology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China

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Xiongbiao Chen Departments of Cardiology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China

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Qianwen Huang Departments of Cardiology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China

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Yixuan Zhao Departments of Cardiology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China
Medical College, Shantou University, Shantou, China

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Kunfu Ouyang Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China

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Yanjun Chen Departments of Cardiology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China

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Background

Heart failure (HF) is a complex and multifactorial syndrome caused by impaired heart function. The high morbidity and mortality of HF cause a heavy burden of illness worldwide. Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) refers to aberrant serum thyroid parameters in patients without past thyroid disease. Observational studies have indicated that NTIS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in HF. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between NTIS and HF prognosis.

Methods

Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane database were searched for any studies reporting an association between NTIS and HF prognosis from inception to 1 July 2022. A meta-analysis was then performed. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. The heterogeneity of the results was assessed with I2 and Cochran's Q statistics. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias analysis were also conducted.

Results

A total of 626 studies were retrieved, and 18 studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that NTIS in HF patients was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events (MACE), but not with in-hospital mortality. The stability of the data was validated by the sensitivity analysis. There was no indication of a publication bias in the pooled results for all-cause mortality and MACE.

Conclusions

This meta-analysis showed that NTIS was associated with a worse outcome in HF patients. However, the association between NTIS and in-hospital mortality of HF patients requires further investigation.

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Shuang Wan Adrenal Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
Department of Endocrinology, Chongqing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing, China

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Chengcheng Zheng Adrenal Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Tao Chen Adrenal Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Lu Tan Adrenal Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Jia Tang Adrenal Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Haoming Tian Adrenal Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Yan Ren Adrenal Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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We applied 24-h Holter monitoring to analyze the characteristics of arrhythmias and heart rate variability in Chinese patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) and compared them with age-, sex-, and blood pressure-matched primary hypertension (PH) patients. A total of 216 PA patients and 261 PH patients were enrolled. The nonstudy data were balanced using propensity score matching (PSM), and the risk variables for developing arrhythmias were then analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Before PSM, the proportion of PA patients with combined atrial premature beats and prolonged QT interval was higher than the corresponding proportion in the PH group. After PSM, the PA group had a larger percentage of transient atrial tachycardia and frequent atrial premature beats, and it had higher heart rate variability metrics. The proportion of unilateral PA combined with multiple ventricular premature beats was higher than that of bilateral PA. Older age, grade 3 hypertension, and hypokalemia were independent risk factors for the emergence of arrhythmias in PA patients. PA patients suffer from a greater prevalence of arrhythmias than well-matched PH patients.

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Shenghe Luo College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji, China

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Yunhui Zuo Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, College of Medicine, Yanbian University, Yanji, China
Department of Cardiology, Yanbian University Hospital, Yanji, China

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Xiaotian Cui Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, College of Medicine, Yanbian University, Yanji, China

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Meiping Zhang Department of Cardiology, Yanbian University Hospital, Yanji, China

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Honghua Jin Department of Pharmacy, Yanbian University Hospital, Yanji, China

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Lan Hong Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, College of Medicine, Yanbian University, Yanji, China

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To observe the effects of liraglutide (analog of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)) on atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion and atrial dynamics, an ex vivo isolated rat atrial perfusion model was used to determine atrial ANP secretion and pulse pressure. DPP-4−/− mice were also established in vivo. ANP levels were determined by radioimmunoassay; GLP-1 content was determined by Elisa. The expression levels of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), PI3K/AKT/mTOR, piezo 1, and cathepsin K were analyzed by Western blot. In the clinical study, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) had low levels of plasma GLP-1 but relatively high levels of plasma ANP. In ex vivo (3.2 nmol/L) and in vivo (30 μg/kg) models, liraglutide significantly decreased ANP levels and atrial pulse pressure. Exendin9–39 alone (GLP-1R antagonist) reversibly significantly increased ANP secretion, and the reduction effect of liraglutide on the secretion of ANP was significantly alleviated by Exendin9–39. Exendin9–39 demonstrated slightly decreased atrial pulse pressure; however, combined liraglutide and Exendin9–39 significantly decreased atrial pulse pressure. Ly294002 (PI3K/AKT inhibitor) inhibited the increase of ANP secretion by liraglutide for a short time, while Ly294002 didn't counteract the decrease in pulse pressure by liraglutide in atrial dynamics studies. Liraglutide increased the expression of GLP-1R and PI3K/AKT/mTOR in isolated rat atria and the hearts of mice in vivo, whereas Exendin9–39 reversibly reduced the expression of GLP-1R and PI3K/AKT/mTOR. Piezo 1 was significantly decreased in wild type and DPP-4−/− mouse heart or isolated rat atria after being treated with liraglutide. Cathepsin K expression was only decreased in in vivo model hearts. Liraglutide can inhibit ANP secretion while decreasing atrial pulse pressure mediated by GLP-1R. Liraglutide probably plays a role in the reduction of ANP secretion via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Piezo 1 and cathepsin K may be involved in the liraglutide mechanism of reduction.

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Willem de Ronde Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Gasthuis, Haarlem, the Netherlands

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Diederik L Smit Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Gasthuis, Haarlem, the Netherlands

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This review summarizes 10 years experience with male abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The typical user of AAS is male, aged between 20 and 40 and lifting weights. Illegal AAS are cheap and easily obtained via internet or local suppliers. AAS are mostly used in cycles with a duration between 6 and 18 weeks. Most AAS cycles contain multiple agents, used simultaneously in a dose vastly exceeding a substitution dose. A variety of other performance and image-enhancing drugs are commonly used, including human growth hormone, thyroid hormone, tamoxifen, clomiphene citrate and human chorionic gonadotrophin. Short-term clinical and biochemical side effects are well established. Long-term side effects are uncertain, but may include heart failure, mood-and anxiety disorders, hypogonadism and subfertility. We share our views on the management of common health problems associated with AAS abuse.

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Melinda Kertész Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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Szilárd Kun Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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Eszter Sélley Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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Zsuzsanna Nagy Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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Tamás Kőszegi Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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István Wittmann Department of Medicine and Nephrology-Diabetes Centre, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Baranya, Hungary

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Background

Type 2 diabetes is characterized, beyond the insulin resistance, by polyhormonal resistance. Thyroid hormonal resistance has not yet been described in this population of patients. Metformin is used to decrease insulin resistance, and at present, it is assumed to influence the effect of triiodothyronine, as well.

Methods

In this open-label, pilot, hypothesis-generating, follow-up study, 21 patients were included; all of them were euthyroid with drug naïve, newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Before and after 4 weeks of metformin therapy, fructosamine, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), thyroid hormones, T3/T4 ratio, and TSH, as well as blood pressure and heart rate using ambulatory blood pressure monitor were measured. We also conducted an in vitro study to investigate the possible mechanisms of T3 resistance, assessing T3-induced Akt phosphorylation among normal (5 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose levels with or without metformin treatment in a human embryonal kidney cell line.

Results

Metformin decreased the level of T3 (P < 0.001), the ratio of T3/T4 (P = 0.038), fructosamine (P = 0.008) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.022). All these changes were accompanied by an unchanged TSH, T4, triglyceride, plasma glucose, bodyweight, blood pressure, and heart rate. In our in vitro study, T3-induced Akt phosphorylation decreased in cells grown in 25 mM glucose medium compared to those in 5 mM. Metformin could not reverse this effect.

Conclusion

Metformin seems to improve T3 sensitivity in the cardiovascular system in euthyroid, type 2 diabetic patients, the mechanism of which may be supracellular.

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Ashley N Reeb Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA

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Andrea Ziegler Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA

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Reigh-Yi Lin Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA

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Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) is the second most common type of thyroid cancers. In order to develop more effective personalized therapies, it is necessary to thoroughly evaluate patient-derived cell lines in in vivo preclinical models before using them to test new, targeted therapies. This study evaluates the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of a panel of three human FTC cell lines (WRO, FTC-238, and TT1609-CO2) with defined genetic mutations in two in vivo murine models: an orthotopic thyroid cancer model to study tumor progression and a tail vein injection model to study metastasis. All cell lines developed tumors in the orthotopic model, with take rates of 100%. Notably, WRO-derived tumors grew two to four times faster than tumors arising from the FTC-238 and TT2609-CO2 cell lines. These results mirrored those of a tail vein injection model for lung metastasis: one hundred percent of mice injected with WRO cells in the tail vein exhibited aggressive growth of bilateral lung metastases within 35 days. In contrast, tail vein injection of FTC-238 or TT2609-CO2 cells did not result in lung metastasis. Together, our work demonstrates that these human FTC cell lines display highly varied tumorigenic and metastatic potential in vivo with WRO being the most aggressive cell line in both orthotopic and lung metastasis models. This information will be valuable when selecting cell lines for preclinical drug testing.

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H A Booij Department of Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands

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W D C Gaykema Roessingh Rehabilitation Center, Enschede, the Netherlands

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K A J Kuijpers Roessingh Rehabilitation Center, Enschede, the Netherlands

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M J M Pouwels Department of Endocrinology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands

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H M den Hertog Department of Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands

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Background

Poststroke fatigue (PSF) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition. However, the etiology remains incompletely understood. Literature suggests the co-prevalence of pituitary dysfunction (PD) with stroke, and the question raises whether this could be a contributing factor to the development of PSF. This study reviews the prevalence of PD after stroke and other acquired brain injuries and its association with fatigue.

Summary

We performed a bibliographic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for English language studies on PD in adult patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI) or aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Forty-two articles were selected for review. Up to 82% of patients were found to have any degree of PD after stroke. Growth hormone deficiency was most commonly found. In aSAH and TBI, prevalences up to 49.3% were reported. However, data differed widely between studies, mostly due to methodological differences including the diagnostic methods used to define PD and the focus on the acute or chronic phase. Data on PD and outcome after stroke, aSAH and TBI are conflicting. No studies were found investigating the association between PD and PSF. Data on the association between PD and fatigue after aSAH and TBI were scarce and conflicting, and fatigue is rarely been investigated as a primary end point.

Key messages

Data according to the prevalence of PD after stroke and other acquired brain injury suggest a high prevalence of PD after these conditions. However, the clinical relevance and especially the association with fatigue need to be established.

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Richard W Carroll Endocrine, Diabetes, and Research Centre, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand

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Brian Corley Endocrine, Diabetes, and Research Centre, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand

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Joe Feltham Department of Radiology, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand

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Patricia Whitfield Endocrine, Diabetes, and Research Centre, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand

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William Park University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand

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Rowena Howard Diabetes and Endocrinology Service, Hutt Hospital, New Zealand

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Melissa Yssel Department of Biochemistry & Endocrinology, Awanui Labs, New Zealand

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Ian Phillips Department of Biochemistry, Awanui Labs, Dunedin, New Zealand

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Simon Harper Department of Surgery & Anaesethesia, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand
Department of General Surgery, Wellington Regional Hospital, New Zealand

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Jun Yang Centre for Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

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Objective

The assessment of primary aldosteronism incorporates adrenal vein sampling (AVS) to lateralize aldosterone excess. Current adrenal vein sampling protocols rely on concurrent cortisol measurements to assess successful cannulation and lateralization and may be inaccurate in the setting of autonomous cortisol secretion. We aimed to compare the measurement of plasma cortisol and metanephrine concentrations to assess cannulation and lateralization during AVS.

Design

This is a diagnostic accuracy study in a tertiary referral endocrinology department.

Methods

Forty-one consecutive patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism undergoing AVS (49 procedures) were included. None had cortisol autonomy. The use of plasma metanephrine-based ratios were compared with standard cortisol-based ratios to assess cannulation and lateralization during ACTH-stimulated AVS.

Results

There was strong agreement between a cortisol selectivity index (SI) ≥5.0 and an adrenal vein (AV) to peripheral vein (PV) plasma metanephrine ratio (AVmet–PVmet) of ≥12.0 to indicate successful cannulation of the AV (n = 117, sensitivity 98%, specificity 89%, positive predictive value (PPV) 95%, negative predictive value (NPV) 94%). There was strong agreement between the standard cortisol-based SI and an AV plasma metanephrine-to-normetanephrine ratio (AVmet–AVnormet) of ≥2.0 to indicate successful cannulation (n = 117, sensitivity 93%, specificity 86%, PPV 94%, NPV 84%). There was strong agreement between the cortisol- or metanephrine-derived lateralization index (LI) > 4.0 for determining lateralization (n = 26, sensitivity 100%, specificity 94.1%, PPV 91.6%, NPV 100%).

Conclusions

Ratios incorporating plasma metanephrines provide comparable outcomes to standard cortisol-based measurements for interpretation of AVS. Further studies are required to assess the use of metanephrine-derived ratios in the context of confirmed cortisol autonomy.

Significance statement

Primary aldosteronism is a common cause of secondary hypertension, and adrenal vein sampling remains the gold standard test to assess lateralization. Cortisol-derived ratios to assess cannulation and lateralization may be affected by concurrent cortisol dysfunction, which is not uncommon in the context of primary aldosteronism. Our study showed comparable outcomes when using accepted cortisol-derived or metanephrine-derived ratios to determine cannulation and lateralization during adrenal vein sampling. Further research is required to validate these findings and to assess the use of metanephrine-derived ratios in the context of confirmed concurrent cortisol dysfunction.

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