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Doron Weinstein, Rive Sarfstein, Zvi Laron, and Haim Werner

are effectively used in clinical settings (2, 4) . The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has an important role in the normal growth and development of the prostate gland (5) . In addition to its physiological role, epidemiological, clinical

Open access

Ram P Narayanan, Bo Fu, Adrian H Heald, Kirk W Siddals, Robert L Oliver, Julie E Hudson, Antony Payton, Simon G Anderson, Anne White, William E R Ollier, and J Martin Gibson

development and progression of diabetic kidney disease is influenced by a number of biological factors. Among these, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family of proteins have been repeatedly implicated in the development of nephropathy and other

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Qi Che, Xirong Xiao, Jun Xu, Miao Liu, Yongning Lu, Suying Liu, and Xi Dong

-rabbit or anti-mouse secondary antibody (Cell Signaling Technology). The labeled proteins were detected by enhanced chemiluminescense. β-actin was used as an internal control. Development of an orthotopic endometrial carcinoma model in nude mice

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Jülide Durmuşoğlu, Henri J L M Timmers, Pepijn van Houten, Hans F Langenhuijsen, Ad R M M Hermus, and Annenienke C van de Ven

number of patients included. ACC patients were divided in two groups; patients with the development of postoperative VTE and patients without the development of postoperative VTE. Categorical data were compared with use of Fisher’s exact test. Continuous

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Violeta Iotova, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, Petra Bruegmann, Manuela Broesamle, Natasa Bratina, Vallo Tillmann, Olaf Hiort, and Alberto M Pereira

knowledge. The European Commission’s (EC) concept was primarily to reduce health care inequalities among member states, such as different health service and care development, discrepancies between health funds and care availability, but most of all because

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Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

hypothalamic disturbance due to energy deficiency and PCOS. Differences/disorders of sex development A few women are born with rare conditions, referred to as differences/disorders of sex development (DSD), in which the development of chromosomal

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Shenglong Le, Leiting Xu, Moritz Schumann, Na Wu, Timo Törmäkangas, Markku Alén, Sulin Cheng, and Petri Wiklund

Introduction Sex steroids are important regulators of pubertal development and their biological action is governed by sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ( 1 ). Serum SHBG levels rise from birth to early childhood, then decline in early

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Nafiye Helvaci, Erdem Karabulut, Ahmet Ugur Demir, and Bulent Okan Yildiz

dysfunction, decreased quality of life and increased risk of accidents. There is also strong evidence suggesting that OSA contributes to the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and abnormalities in glucose metabolism ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). According

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Kristian Almstrup, Hanne Frederiksen, Anna-Maria Andersson, and Anders Juul

sexual maturity can take place. The age at pubertal onset varies markedly both among healthy boys (9–14 years) and girls (8–13 years), and both early and late pubertal onset is related to a higher risk of disease development later in life ( 3 ). In girls

Open access

Fiona Broughton Pipkin, Hiten D Mistry, Chandrima Roy, Bernhard Dick, Jason Waugh, Rebecca Chikhi, Lesia O Kurlak, and Markus G Mohaupt

Introduction The fetal adrenal gland and hypothalamic–pituitary axis (HPA) play important roles during pregnancy. Between weeks 32 and 34 of gestation, there is a rapid maturation of the fetal adrenal cortex, allowing development of a variety of