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Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

hypothalamic disturbance due to energy deficiency and PCOS. Differences/disorders of sex development A few women are born with rare conditions, referred to as differences/disorders of sex development (DSD), in which the development of chromosomal

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Nafiye Helvaci, Erdem Karabulut, Ahmet Ugur Demir, and Bulent Okan Yildiz

dysfunction, decreased quality of life and increased risk of accidents. There is also strong evidence suggesting that OSA contributes to the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and abnormalities in glucose metabolism ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). According

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Shenglong Le, Leiting Xu, Moritz Schumann, Na Wu, Timo Törmäkangas, Markku Alén, Sulin Cheng, and Petri Wiklund

Introduction Sex steroids are important regulators of pubertal development and their biological action is governed by sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ( 1 ). Serum SHBG levels rise from birth to early childhood, then decline in early

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Kristian Almstrup, Hanne Frederiksen, Anna-Maria Andersson, and Anders Juul

sexual maturity can take place. The age at pubertal onset varies markedly both among healthy boys (9–14 years) and girls (8–13 years), and both early and late pubertal onset is related to a higher risk of disease development later in life ( 3 ). In girls

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Fiona Broughton Pipkin, Hiten D Mistry, Chandrima Roy, Bernhard Dick, Jason Waugh, Rebecca Chikhi, Lesia O Kurlak, and Markus G Mohaupt

Introduction The fetal adrenal gland and hypothalamic–pituitary axis (HPA) play important roles during pregnancy. Between weeks 32 and 34 of gestation, there is a rapid maturation of the fetal adrenal cortex, allowing development of a variety of

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Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah, and Emily K Bergsland

symptoms, and the development of any SRE were abstracted. Bone metastases were considered synchronous if they were identified within 3 months of diagnosis of the primary tumor. If bone metastases were identified beyond 3 months after diagnosis, they were

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Elizabeth Yan Zhang and Bao-Ting Zhu

estrogens, such as those observed during human pregnancy, are immunosuppressive (1) . For example, 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) and estriol (E 3 ) at suitable doses can inhibit the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) (2, 3, 4) and

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Ailsa Maria Main, Maria Rossing, Line Borgwardt, Birgitte Grønkær Toft, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, and Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen

first screening. The family members with PPGLs displayed markers of poor prognosis including metastatic disease and markers included in the PASS (Supplementary material) and the variant might be associated with a high risk of tumour development in adults

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Urszula Smyczyńska, Joanna Smyczyńska, Maciej Hilczer, Renata Stawerska, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz, and Andrzej Lewiński

defined by Ranke as a new paradigm for GH treatment in 21st century ( 3 ). Moreover, the use of growth prediction models has been proposed as a personalized approach to GH treatment in clinical practice ( 4 ). Development of such models should allow to

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Leanne Hodson and Fredrik Karpe

tissue) and how dysregulation of these processes may play a role in the development of insulin resistance and/or IHTAG accumulation in humans. Although there are new therapies in the pipeline for the treatment of NAFLD/insulin resistance, there are many