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Manon Engels, Paul N Span, Rod T Mitchell, Joop J T M Heuvel, Monica A Marijnissen-van Zanten, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Egbert Oosterwijk, Nike M Stikkelbroeck, Lee B Smith, Fred C G J Sweep, and Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten

literature ( 14 , 15 ). GATA transcription factors are involved in development (by regulating cell fate specification) and differentiation in all eukaryotic organisms. These factors are able to bind to a consensus DNA element, WGATAR, known as the GATA

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Renata C Scalco, Ericka B Trarbach, Edoarda V A Albuquerque, Thais K Homma, Thais H Inoue-Lima, Mirian Y Nishi, Berenice B Mendonca, and Alexander A L Jorge

peak bone mass and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics ( 1 ). However, individual outcomes of estrogen treatment are highly variable among these patients. For instance, uterine development descriptions range from lower than average

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Rajae Talbi and Victor M Navarro

neurons in the control of reproduction and metabolism. On one hand, Kiss1 ARC neurons are direct targets of central and peripheral metabolic cues, which form an essential regulatory element of the HPG axis from early stages of development. On the other

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Jiayang Lin, Peizhen Zhang, Yan Huang, Xueyun Wei, Dan Guo, Jianfang Liu, Deying Liu, Yajuan Deng, Bingyan Xu, Chensihan Huang, Xiaoyu Yang, Yan Lu, Lijing Jia, and Huijie Zhang

Introduction Thyroid hormones are essential for both normal development and metabolism. These actions are mediated through its two receptor isoforms, thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) and thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) ( 1 ). Thyroid hormone

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Alexander V Amram, Stephen Cutie, and Guo N Huang

theory for the phylogenetic divergence in cardiac regenerative capacity is the species-dependent onset and intensity of endocrine signaling throughout development ( 2 ). The ability for vertebrates to regenerate damaged heart tissue by replacing lost

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Richard P Steeds, Vandana Sagar, Shishir Shetty, Tessa Oelofse, Harjot Singh, Raheel Ahmad, Elizabeth Bradley, Rachel Moore, Suzanne Vickrage, Stacey Smith, Ivan Yim, Yasir S Elhassan, Hema Venkataraman, John Ayuk, Stephen Rooney, and Tahir Shah

centralising care to a limited number of centres able to invest in the required service development and having the appropriate infrastructure for multidisciplinary care may be the best way to improve outcomes for CHD patients. Pathophysiology of CHD In

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Angelo Maria Patti, Kalliopi Pafili, Nikolaos Papanas, and Manfredi Rizzo

development of gestational diabetes (GDM) cases ( 1 ). Epidemiological evidence has consistently shown that among mothers with prior history of GDM, 30–84% of them had GDM recurrence in subsequent pregnancies ( 2 ), 20–40% developed metabolic syndrome (MetS

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Elizabeth Micks, Greta B Raglan, and Jay Schulkin

these issues (6) . Reducing unmet need for family planning represents one of the most effective strategies for improving maternal health (7) , and progestogens remain one of the most promising avenues for contraceptive research and development. However

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Legh Wilkinson, Nicolette J D Verhoog, and Ann Louw

signalling, often resulting in various peripheral effects, one of which is the tissue-specific reductions in the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) functional pool. This reduction in the GRα functional pool may ultimately drive the development of acquired GC

Open access

Yiqiong Ma, Zhaowei Chen, Yu Tao, Jili Zhu, Hongxia Yang, Wei Liang, and Guohua Ding

progression of DN ( 13 ). Our previous studies confirmed that high levels of glucose cause mitochondrial ROS production and increases the podocyte apoptosis rate ( 14 , 15 ). However, whether mitochondrial dynamics contribute to the development and