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Anna Kistner, Mireille Vanpée, and Kerstin Hall

insulin resistance (7) . In some studies, under-nutrition in utero has been associated with increased catch-up growth in childhood, increased relative percent body fat, and obesity (8, 9, 10, 11) . It is known that the development of type 2 diabetes

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Hichem Bouguerra, Gorrab Amal, Stephan Clavel, Hamouda Boussen, Jean-François Louet, and Asma Gati

NK92 lysis To provide further evidence for the role of PGC1A in tumor development, we explore the possible relationship between PGC1A with tumor aggressiveness of BC cells. PGC1A gene expression was assessed in two basal cell lines with a high

Open access

Yael Sofer, Nava Nevo, Michal Vechoropoulos, Gabi Shefer, Etty Osher, Nathan Landis, Karen Tordjman, Geoffrey L Hammond, and Naftali Stern

levels and HbA1c ( 11 , 13 ). Hypoandrogenism in men and hyperandrogenism in women (e.g., the polycystic ovary syndrome) have been linked to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome ( 13 , 14 ). In one report, SHBG levels predicted the development

Open access

Rui-yi Tang, Rong Chen, Miao Ma, Shou-qing Lin, Yi-wen Zhang, and Ya-ping Wang

). Cases of KS account for approximately 40–60% of all IHH cases ( 3 , 4 ). IHH negatively affects patients’ sexual, bone and metabolic health, as well as their psychological development ( 5 , 6 ). Thus, a precise early diagnosis and timely treatment

Open access

Hongyan Wang, Bin Wu, Zichuan Yao, Xianqing Zhu, Yunzhong Jiang, and Song Bai

University in Shengyang, China, 14 January 2019. Informed consent from all eligible patients was obtained. The clinical research registry UIN is ChiCTR1900020811. The development cohort of this study consisted of 262 patients who underwent pheochromocytoma

Open access

Raymond J Rodgers, Jodie C Avery, Vivienne M Moore, Michael J Davies, Ricardo Azziz, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Lisa J Moran, Sarah A Robertson, Nigel K Stepto, Robert J Norman, and Helena J Teede

contribution to the development of DM2. Declaration of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of this review. Funding This work did not receive any specific

Open access

Charlotte Höybye, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Diego Ferone, Jens Sandahl Christiansen, David Gilfoyle, Eva Dam Christoffersen, Eva Mortensen, Jonathan A Leff, and Michael Beckert

facilitate GH’s many functions, any GH replacement product should be able to reach GH receptors. Currently, a variety of long-acting GH therapies are in development. Most are chemically modified proteins that often extend GH’s half-life by molecular

Open access

Manon Engels, Paul N Span, Rod T Mitchell, Joop J T M Heuvel, Monica A Marijnissen-van Zanten, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Egbert Oosterwijk, Nike M Stikkelbroeck, Lee B Smith, Fred C G J Sweep, and Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten

literature ( 14 , 15 ). GATA transcription factors are involved in development (by regulating cell fate specification) and differentiation in all eukaryotic organisms. These factors are able to bind to a consensus DNA element, WGATAR, known as the GATA

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Renata C Scalco, Ericka B Trarbach, Edoarda V A Albuquerque, Thais K Homma, Thais H Inoue-Lima, Mirian Y Nishi, Berenice B Mendonca, and Alexander A L Jorge

peak bone mass and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics ( 1 ). However, individual outcomes of estrogen treatment are highly variable among these patients. For instance, uterine development descriptions range from lower than average

Open access

Jiayang Lin, Peizhen Zhang, Yan Huang, Xueyun Wei, Dan Guo, Jianfang Liu, Deying Liu, Yajuan Deng, Bingyan Xu, Chensihan Huang, Xiaoyu Yang, Yan Lu, Lijing Jia, and Huijie Zhang

Introduction Thyroid hormones are essential for both normal development and metabolism. These actions are mediated through its two receptor isoforms, thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) and thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) ( 1 ). Thyroid hormone