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V Kenan Çelik, Sercan Kapancık, Turgut Kaçan, Selen Baloglu Kaçan, Serkan Kapancık, and Hasan Kılıçgün

/ornithine ratio (AOR) decreased in breast cancer patients and this could be a marker ( 30 ). The ornithine levels in all of the study groups were increased and statistically significant ( Table 3 ). Increased ornithine levels may also underpin the development of

Open access

Cecília Cristelo, Alexandra Machado, Bruno Sarmento, and Francisco Miguel Gama

microbiome ( 12 ) have also been suggested to play a role on type 1 diabetes development. The heterogeneity and variation in the pathogenic process and phenotypic characteristics makes it difficult to diagnose and to treat the disease at an early stage ( 13

Open access

Thomas Crezee, Mirela Petrulea, Doina Piciu, Martin Jaeger, Jan W A Smit, Theo S Plantinga, Carmen E Georgescu, and Romana Netea-Maier

dephosphorylation remains to be determined. Although the heterozygous GC genotype, and most likely also the homozygous CC genotype, are demonstrated to predispose to development of NMTC by inducing hyperactivation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway upon the encounter of

Open access

Agnieszka Bogusz, Svenja Boekhoff, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Gabriele Calaminus, Maria Eveslage, and Hermann L Müller

a + p hypothalamic areas ( Fig. 2 ). These 109 CP patients diagnosed with preoperative involvement of a + p hypothalamic areas were included in our analysis of survival and weight development during follow-up. In 55 of these 109 CP patients (50

Open access

Daiki Kobayashi, Nagato Kuriyama, Keita Hirano, Osamu Takahashi, and Hiroshi Noto

still controversial. Previous meta-analyses and systematic reviews, which included four randomized control trials ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ), reported no difference in malignancy development between intensively treated and standardly treated diabetic

Open access

Michael Ulm, Arvind V Ramesh, Keely M McNamara, Suriyan Ponnusamy, Hironobu Sasano, and Ramesh Narayanan

, androgen that is responsible for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland, is also responsible for the development of PCa. There are multiple stages of PCa progression; each stage is determined based on the severity of the disease, castration

Open access

Chenghao Piao, Xiaojie Wang, Shiqiao Peng, Xinyu Guo, Hui Zhao, Li He, Yan Zeng, Fan Zhang, Kewen Zhu, and Yiwei Wang

foetus for development ( 5 ). The need for maternal insulin is an elevated result of gestational insulin resistance, which is impacted by attenuated food intake and placental hormone production. Consequently, the sizes of pancreatic β cells are enhanced

Open access

Magdalene K Montgomery and Nigel Turner

, 33, 34) . Both the increase in mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity (35) , as well as the development of IR (36) , occur at around 3–4 weeks of high-fat feeding. Furthermore, in a recent comparison of mouse strain, our group showed that this

Open access

Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

complicated and ambiguous pathogenesis. Many risk factors have been identified, such as obesity, genetics and early childhood growth patterns ( 4 , 5 ). Data from many studies suggest that genetics is very important in the development of PCOS. A Dutch twin

Open access

Li Li, Qifa Song, and Xi Yang

information for precision medicine. The classification of ever-increasing patients with obesity is a prerequisite for the precision intervention of this condition ( 20 ). Clinically, the primary unhealthy state related to obesity is the development of IGT