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Renea A Taylor, Jennifer Lo, Natasha Ascui, and Matthew J Watt

weeks No effects on tumour development, tumour differentiation, tumour grade, age of tumour palpation and age of death assessed after 36–40 weeks. Note, no difference in body mass. 24  TRAMP mice LFD (16% fat) vs HFD (40% fat) starting at 3 weeks

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Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Rafael Barrera Salgueiro, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Thiago Pantaleão, Vânia Maria Corrêa da Costa, and Maria Tereza Nunes

Introduction Iodine is essential for thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) synthesis, which are the only iodine-containing hormones in vertebrates and exert crucial effects on the regulation of development, metabolism and growth ( 1

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Lian Hollander-Cohen, Benjamin Böhm, Krist Hausken, and Berta Levavi-Sivan

hormone synthesis, and ovulation throughout the time-sensitive process of gonad maturation. Generally speaking, circulating FSH levels are higher during gonad development and maturation, and circulating LH levels rise during the final stages of maturation

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Simonetta Piana, Eleonora Zanetti, Alessandra Bisagni, Alessia Ciarrocchi, Davide Giordano, Federica Torricelli, Teresa Rossi, and Moira Ragazzi

regulates many fundamental processes during development and homeostasis of a wide range of tissues. As a consequence, deregulation of this pathway has been linked to multiple human disorders, from congenital syndromes to cancer ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). NOTCH

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K E Lines, R P Vas Nunes, M Frost, C J Yates, M Stevenson, and R V Thakker

diagnosed at a metastatic stage and not curable by surgery ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). In addition, over 40% of sporadic (non-familial) PNETs also show mutations in the MEN1 gene ( 8 , 9 ). Thus, MEN1 mutations are frequently associated with PNET development

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Emma Jernberg, Anders Bergh, and Pernilla Wikström

, nilutamide and bicalutamide) reduces the risk of PC death by 10–30% compared to castration alone ( 8 ). Through the development of the 2nd-generation AR antagonists such as enzalutamide and apalutamide and the steroidogenesis inhibitor abiraterone acetate

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W Liu, Y Wang, X Han, X Cai, Y Zhu, M Zhang, S Gong, J Li, and L Ji

reasonable to infer that the higher prevalence of DN in the present study was largely due to poor diabetes care in the past. We found that birth location was associated with the development of DN in the present study. This is an important sociodemographic

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V Kenan Çelik, Sercan Kapancık, Turgut Kaçan, Selen Baloglu Kaçan, Serkan Kapancık, and Hasan Kılıçgün

/ornithine ratio (AOR) decreased in breast cancer patients and this could be a marker ( 30 ). The ornithine levels in all of the study groups were increased and statistically significant ( Table 3 ). Increased ornithine levels may also underpin the development of

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Agnieszka Bogusz, Svenja Boekhoff, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Gabriele Calaminus, Maria Eveslage, and Hermann L Müller

a + p hypothalamic areas ( Fig. 2 ). These 109 CP patients diagnosed with preoperative involvement of a + p hypothalamic areas were included in our analysis of survival and weight development during follow-up. In 55 of these 109 CP patients (50

Open access

Daiki Kobayashi, Nagato Kuriyama, Keita Hirano, Osamu Takahashi, and Hiroshi Noto

still controversial. Previous meta-analyses and systematic reviews, which included four randomized control trials ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ), reported no difference in malignancy development between intensively treated and standardly treated diabetic