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Raja Padidela, Moira S Cheung, Vrinda Saraff, and Poonam Dharmaraj

monitor development and progression of nephrocalcinosis. On an annual basis, blood pressure should be checked. A clinical assessment of skeletal deformity, including craniosynostosis when age appropriate, should also be made at every clinic visit and, if

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Katherine U Gaynor, Irina V Grigorieva, Samantha M Mirczuk, Sian E Piret, Kreepa G Kooblall, Mark Stevenson, Karine Rizzoti, Michael R Bowl, M Andrew Nesbit, Paul T Christie, William D Fraser, Tertius Hough, Michael P Whyte, Robin Lovell-Badge, and Rajesh V Thakker

#146200 and %307700) ( 2 ). These genetic abnormalities may result in defects in PTH itself, parathyroid gland development, or parathyroid gland function. For example, mutations in PTH cause a lack of functional PTH protein ( 3 ), mutations in the

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Linfei Yang, Xiao Yu, and Yongchao Yang

). Recently, ATX was reported to play an important role in the development and progression of some tumour types ( 8 ). Elevated levels of ATX have been demonstrated to be positively associated with the aggressive behaviour of tumours including renal cell

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Ning Yao, Chunbei Zhou, Jun Xie, Xinshu Li, Qianru Zhou, Jing Chen, and Shuang Zhou

development ( 4 ), and the decreased survival of children ( 1 ). In all age groups, iodine deficiency can cause goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland, as it adapts to chronic iodine deficiency ( 5 ). IDD have long been a significant public health problem

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Susanna Cirera, Sophia G Moesgaard, Nora E Zois, Nathja Ravn, Jens P Goetze, Signe E Cremer, Tom Teerlink, Páll S Leifsson, Jesper L Honge, J Michael Hasenkam, and Lisbeth H Olsen

metalloproteinases (MMPs), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) isoforms, NOS, and natriuretic peptides (7, 8, 9, 10) . Moreover, microRNAs have emerged as new players in many developmental and pathological processes, i.e. cardiac development and heart hypertrophy

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Kaisa K Ivaska, Maikki K Heliövaara, Pertti Ebeling, Marco Bucci, Ville Huovinen, H Kalervo Väänänen, Pirjo Nuutila, and Heikki A Koistinen

increased peak bone mass during development (19) . In addition, the studies suggested that insulin downregulates the expression of osteoprotegerin, thereby indirectly up-regulating bone resorption and the release of matrix-bound OC, particularly in its

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Wafaa M Rashed, Anas Saad, Muneer Al-Husseini, Ahmed Mahmoud Galal, Assem Mohamed Ismael, Ahmed M Al-Tayep, Ayman El Shafie, Mahmoud Ahmed Ali, and Ahmad Samir Alfaar

types. There has been a significant increase in the number of long-term cancer survivors. Although it is a good news in the fight against cancer, many patients treated with radiation therapy suffer from adverse effects, including the development of a

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Weiwei He, Bin Wang, Kaida Mu, Jing Zhang, Yanping Yang, Wei Yao, Sheli Li, and Jin-an Zhang

Introduction In autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), one of the autoimmune diseases, cytokine-mediated immunity play a key role during the pathogenesis and development ( 1 ). AITDs are common endocrine autoimmune diseases with prevalence of

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Milica Popovic, Fahim Ebrahimi, Sandrine Andrea Urwyler, Marc Yves Donath, and Mirjam Christ-Crain

Introduction Patients with metabolic syndrome are at significant risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases ( 1 ). Arginine vasopressin (AVP) was suggested to play a causal role in the development of type 2

Open access

Elin Kahlert, Martina Blaschke, Knut Brockmann, Clemens Freiberg, Onno E Janssen, Nikolaus Stahnke, Domenika Strik, Martin Merkel, Alexander Mann, Klaus-Peter Liesenkötter, and Heide Siggelkow

transition, the quality of the medical care provided was seen to worsen, resulting in the founding of coordinated care in different countries and in the development of new guidelines to maintain the level of the medical care provided at an optimum ( 8 , 20