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Anne M Drewes, Maria E Møller, Rasmus Hertzum-Larsen, Gerda Engholm, and Hans H Storm

common among women than men and are reportedly to grow during pregnancy ( 21 ), where hormonal levels of oestrogen and progesterone increase. Lately, a link between the use of exogenous hormones and the development of a primary brain tumour has been

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Aaron Lerner, Patricia Jeremias, and Torsten Matthias

dysfunctions in thyroid disorders were most recently reviewed ( 11 ). Taken together, a pathogenic role of the intestinal damage, including in CD, is suggested in the development of HT ( 12 , 13 ). Several potential mechanisms were suggested for the gut

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Amalie Carlsson, Kaspar Sørensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Hanne Frederiksen, and Anders Juul

). Serious adverse health effects have been associated with high phthalate exposure such as alteration in reproductive development and increased risks of insulin resistance and obesity in human adults ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). Importantly, children may be

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Wang Chengji and Fan Xianjin

syndrome, mainly obesity ( 17 ). Other studies have indicated that high baseline PAI-1 levels are associated with incident diabetes ( 18 ) and that PAI-1 levels continue to increase with increasing glucose levels and the development of T2DM ( 19 , 20

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Jakob Høgild Langdahl, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, John Vissing, Morten Frost, Knud Bonnet Yderstræde, and Per Heden Andersen

muscle-specific TFAM knockout, peripheral glucose disposal was increased and they did not develop diabetes ( 16 ). These findings do not support mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle tissue as a primary phenomenon in the development of insulin

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Gudmundur Johannsson, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Peter E Clayton, Catherine S Choong, David Clemmons, Mehul Dattani, Jan Frystyk, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Reiko Horikawa, Anders Juul, John J Kopchick, Xiaoping Luo, Sebastian Neggers, Irene Netchine, Daniel S Olsson, Sally Radovick, Ron Rosenfeld, Richard J Ross, Katharina Schilbach, Paulo Solberg, Christian Strasburger, Peter Trainer, Kevin C J Yuen, Kerstin Wickstrom, Jens O L Jorgensen, and on behalf of the Growth Hormone Research Society

Introduction Biological markers (biomarkers) play an essential role in the clinical care of patients, drug development and regulatory approval. Furthermore, biomarkers are linked to surrogate endpoints and clinical endpoints ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4

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Angela Köninger, Antonella Iannaccone, Ensar Hajder, Mirjam Frank, Boerge Schmidt, Ekkehard Schleussner, Rainer Kimmig, Alexandra Gellhaus, and Hans Dieplinger

development of GDM in patients suffering from PCOS, whereas other parameters like sexual hormone-binding protein (SHBG), fasting insulin and testosterone were not predictive after multivariate analysis ( 14 , 15 ). During the course of a pregnancy, IR

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Agnieszka Pazderska, Yaasir Mamoojee, Satish Artham, Margaret Miller, Stephen G Ball, Tim Cheetham, and Richard Quinton

Introduction Delayed puberty is defined by the absence of testicular development 2.5 s.d. later than the population mean – typically 14 years of age in males ( 1 ). Although the majority of cases at age 14 have constitutional delay (CDP

Open access

Janaína Felix Braga, Daniela Ravizzoni Dartora, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, and Robson Augusto Souza Santos

different models of diabetes and also in different experimental contexts ( 19 , 20 ). Wang and colleagues shed light on the pivotal role of ACE2/Ang(1–7)/Mas axis in organogenesis during embryonic development of pancreatic islets. In this study, the authors

Open access

Stephen Ball, Julian Barth, Miles Levy, and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

of development of hyponatraemia The intrinsic ability of the central nervous system to adapt to changing osmolar stress The range and degree of co-morbidities Severe symptoms are unlikely with serum sodium >130 mmol/L and alternative causes of