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K L Gatford, G K Heinemann, S D Thompson, J V Zhang, S Buckberry, J A Owens, G A Dekker, C T Roberts, and on behalf of the SCOPE Consortium

Introduction The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF1 and IGF2, are important regulators of placental and foetal development, as well as postnatal growth and metabolism. In humans, circulating IGF1 peaks in adolescence and then falls with age

Open access

B Shahida, P Sahlstrand Johnson, R Jain, H Brorson, P Åsman, M Lantz, and T Planck

Introduction Autoimmune thyroid disease is a prerequisite for the development of Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO), and both thyroid and orbital tissues are infiltrated by immunocompetent cells. The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) acts

Open access

Stefano Mangiola, Ryan Stuchbery, Patrick McCoy, Ken Chow, Natalie Kurganovs, Michael Kerger, Anthony Papenfuss, Christopher M Hovens, and Niall M Corcoran

–20%, respectively ( 8 , 10 ). The promotion of an obese-like phenotype by androgen deprivation is highly clinically relevant, as obesity (expressed as BMI) is itself associated with the development of prostate cancer, post-prostatectomy biochemical failure and

Open access

Marloes Emous, Merel van den Broek, Ragnhild B Wijma, Loek J M de Heide, Gertjan van Dijk, Anke Laskewitz, Erik Totté, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, and André P van Beek

has been observed ( 36 ). This suggests that the development of hypoglycaemia unawareness cannot be attributed to a specific type of bariatric surgery. The discrepancy between the asymptomatic low blood sugars in our study and the development of

Open access

Melissa Braga, Zena Simmons, Keith C Norris, Monica G Ferrini, and Jorge N Artaza

Introduction Vitamin D is universally recognized for its classical effects on calcium regulation and phosphate homeostasis, in relation to bone development and maintenance ( 1 , 2 ). However, vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to the

Open access

Kathryn L Gatford, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Lili Huang, Pamela Su-Lin Sim, Claire T Roberts, Johannes D Velhuis, and Chen Chen

important role for GH for maternal adaptations to pregnancy and placental development is conserved across multiple species. The timing of increased basal secretion from mid-pregnancy suggests regulation of pituitary secretion by a placenta-derived factor

Open access

María L Bacigalupo, Verónica G Piazza, Nadia S Cicconi, Pablo Carabias, Andrzej Bartke, Yimin Fang, Ana I Sotelo, Gabriel A Rabinovich, María F Troncoso, and Johanna G Miquet

somatotropic axis have been implicated in the development of liver tumors in rodents. While GH-deficient mice are resistant to the development of carcinogen-induced liver tumors ( 10 ), transgenic mice overexpressing GH spontaneously develop hepatocellular

Open access

Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, and Hiroshi Wachi

cells were obtained from the Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan). The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 (Wako Pure Chemical Industries) supplemented with 10% fetal

Open access

Xinlei Chen, Liru Hu, Caojie Liu, Guangcheng Ni, and Yuwei Zhang

Owing to the development of imaging techniques and improved patient awareness, there is an increasing tendency toward incidentally discovered PPGL. Considering that no statistically significant differences were found in hormonal secretion and malignancy

Open access

Borros Arneth

pathogenesis or whether their appearance represents a major step in disease development, and this topic remains controversial in the extant literature ( 15 , 16 ). In addition, the presence of autoantibodies could indicate a non-specific, bystander autoimmune