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B Fabre, G Maccallini, A Oneto, D Gonzalez, V Hirschler, C Aranda, and G Berg

(associated with carbohydrate intolerance), type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome in the population, particularly in children, all primarily due to changes in their lifestyle (5, 6, 7) . Insulin that is actively transported to the saliva from its

Open access

Xiaohui Qi, Ping He, Huayan Yao, Huanhuan Sun, Jiying Qi, Min Cao, Bin Cui, and Guang Ning

shown that insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) are involved in the development and progression of malignancies ( 9 , 10 ). Insulin has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of several cancer sites, such as the liver, pancreas

Open access

Bledar Daka, Thord Rosen, Per Anders Jansson, Lennart Råstam, Charlotte A Larsson, and Ulf Lindblad

, 10) . Moreover, in vitro studies have shown that insulin might inhibit production of SHBG in human hepatoma cells (11) , and in accordance with these findings an inhibitory effect of insulin on SHBG secretion has been reported (12) . In contrast

Open access

Yusaku Mori, Eunhyoung Ko, Rudolf Furrer, Linda C Qu, Stuart C Wiber, I George Fantus, Mario Thevis, Alan Medline, and Adria Giacca

Introduction Insulin treatment is life saving for type 1 diabetes and essential for achieving glycaemic control and thus preventing complications in type 2 diabetes. However, insulin has mitotic properties in addition to its well

Open access

P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, N Kleefstra, H J G Bilo, and H J Arnqvist

Introduction Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) are structurally and functionally closely related peptides. IGF1, mainly synthesized in the liver after stimulation of the GH receptor, plays a central role in cell metabolism and growth

Open access

Ivar Følling, Anna B Wennerstrøm, Tor J Eide, and Hilde Loge Nilsen

important ectopic hormone is adrenocorticotropic hormone causing Cushing syndrome that adds to the typical phaeochromocytoma symptoms ( 1 , 2 ). Staining with anti-insulin was described in five of seven phaeochromocytomas ( 3 ). Other examples of ectopic

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Doron Weinstein, Rive Sarfstein, Zvi Laron, and Haim Werner

are effectively used in clinical settings (2, 4) . The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has an important role in the normal growth and development of the prostate gland (5) . In addition to its physiological role, epidemiological, clinical

Open access

L Ahlkvist, K Brown, and B Ahrén

Introduction In fully compensated insulin resistance, there is a sufficient upregulation of insulin secretion whereas in glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes this upregulation is inadequate (1) . Several mechanisms have been suggested to

Open access

Jothydev Kesavadev, Pradeep Babu Sadasivan Pillai, Arun Shankar, Gopika Krishnan, and Sunitha Jothydev

require insulin therapy due to inadequate glycemic control with oral agents ( 1 ). Metformin and sulfonylureas (SU) are the most commonly used oral antidiabetic agents. However, SU have a greater tendency to cause hypoglycemia and weight gain and hence

Open access

Anouar Aznou, Rick Meijer, Daniel van Raalte, Martin den Heijer, Annemieke Heijboer, and Renate de Jongh

Introduction The exact mechanisms underlying the development of peripheral insulin resistance, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), are complex and not yet fully understood. Many metabolic and endocrine factors are involved in the