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Qingrong Pan Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Shuxin Gao Department of General Practice, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei Province, China

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Xia Gao Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Ning Yang Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Zhi Yao Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Yanjin Hu Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Li Miao Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Zhe Chen Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Guang Wang Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

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Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism and clinical hypothyroidism, two commonly encountered clinical conditions, can induce various metabolic changes ( 1 ) and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases ( 2 , 3 ). Recent researches have

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Huixing Liu Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China

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Daoquan Peng Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China

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Introduction Hypothyroidism, including overt and subclinical hypothyroidism is a common disease among people. The former is defined as increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and reduced free peripheral thyroid hormone (TH

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Bogumila Urgatz Merck Healthcare KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

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Kris G Poppe University Hospital CHU Saint Pierre, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium

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Diagnosis of hypothyroidism during pregnancy Evolution of normal thyroid function during pregnancy Circulating levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) increase from about 11 days post conception, reach a peak around the end of the

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Salman Razvi Translational and Clinical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK

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Sanaa Mrabeti Medical Affairs EMEA, Merck Serono Middle East FZ-LLC, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

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Markus Luster Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Marburg, Marburg, Germany

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Introduction Current management guidelines for the management of hypothyroidism focus on the administration of levothyroxine (LT4), with doses titrated to bring thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH) within a locally-derived reference

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Chenjia Tang Department of Endocrinology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

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Yanting Dong Department of Endocrinology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Department of Endocrinology, Suichang County Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lishui, China

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Lusi Lu Department of Endocrinology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

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Nan Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

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’s symptoms are relieved ( 8 , 11 ). The incidence of hypothyroidism after treatment is 5–27% ( 12 , 13 ), and the incidence of recurrence ranges from 1.6–20% ( 14 , 15 ). Many scholars have explored the risk factors for recurrence and hypothyroidism in

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Hanneke J C M Wouters Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands
Department of Hematology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

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Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

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Anneke C Muller Kobold Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

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Thera P Links Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

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Gerwin Huls Department of Hematology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

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Melanie M van der Klauw Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands

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Introduction Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder. Treatment with levothyroxine has been considered the standard of care for patients with established primary hypothyroidism, and its use has been enforced in all international

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Isabel M Abreu Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal

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Eva Lau Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar S. João, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

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Bernardo de Sousa Pinto Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal

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Davide Carvalho Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar S. João, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, Porto, Portugal
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

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Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is diagnosed biochemically when both serum-free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) are within the normal range, whereas the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is elevated ( 1

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Bjarke R Medici Department of Medicine, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark
Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark

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Birte Nygaard Department of Medicine, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jeppe L la Cour Department of Medicine, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

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Martin Krakauer Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Andreas Brønden Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Mette P Sonne Department of Medicine, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

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Jens J Holst Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jens F Rehfeld Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Tina Vilsbøll Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

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Jens Faber Department of Medicine, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Filip K Knop Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark

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Introduction Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease, affecting about 3% of the general population ( 1 ), with levothyroxine substitution therapy being the standard treatment ( 2 , 3 ). Hypothyroidism is associated with increased body

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Jakob Kirkegård Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark
Department of Surgery (Section for Upper Gastrointestinal and Hepatico-Pancreatico-Biliary Surgery), Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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Dora Körmendiné Farkas Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen Department of Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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hypothyroidism are defined by an excess or deficiency of T3 and T4, respectively and can affect organ function and increase mortality ( 2 ). Thyroid hormone status affects the growth and homeostasis of gastrointestinal organs through binding to thyroid hormone

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Lian Duan Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China

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Han-Yu Zhang Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China

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Min Lv Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China

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Han Zhang Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China

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Yao Chen Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China

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Ting Wang Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China

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Yan Li Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China

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Yan Wu Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong, China

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Junfeng Li Department of Radiology, Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China

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Kefeng Li School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA

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hypothyroidism (HT) within 6 months after RAI. Given that patients with post-RAI HT may require lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy, it is essential to identify the GD patients with a high risk of early HT before RAI. The pathophysiological mechanisms

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