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Qingrong Pan, Shuxin Gao, Xia Gao, Ning Yang, Zhi Yao, Yanjin Hu, Li Miao, Zhe Chen, and Guang Wang

Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism and clinical hypothyroidism, two commonly encountered clinical conditions, can induce various metabolic changes ( 1 ) and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases ( 2 , 3 ). Recent researches have

Open access

Huixing Liu and Daoquan Peng

Introduction Hypothyroidism, including overt and subclinical hypothyroidism is a common disease among people. The former is defined as increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and reduced free peripheral thyroid hormone (TH

Open access

Salman Razvi, Sanaa Mrabeti, and Markus Luster

Introduction Current management guidelines for the management of hypothyroidism focus on the administration of levothyroxine (LT4), with doses titrated to bring thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin, TSH) within a locally-derived reference

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Chenjia Tang, Yanting Dong, Lusi Lu, and Nan Zhang

’s symptoms are relieved ( 8 , 11 ). The incidence of hypothyroidism after treatment is 5–27% ( 12 , 13 ), and the incidence of recurrence ranges from 1.6–20% ( 14 , 15 ). Many scholars have explored the risk factors for recurrence and hypothyroidism in

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Isabel M Abreu, Eva Lau, Bernardo de Sousa Pinto, and Davide Carvalho

Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is diagnosed biochemically when both serum-free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) are within the normal range, whereas the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is elevated ( 1

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Jakob Kirkegård, Dora Körmendiné Farkas, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, and Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton

hypothyroidism are defined by an excess or deficiency of T3 and T4, respectively and can affect organ function and increase mortality ( 2 ). Thyroid hormone status affects the growth and homeostasis of gastrointestinal organs through binding to thyroid hormone

Open access

Lian Duan, Han-Yu Zhang, Min Lv, Han Zhang, Yao Chen, Ting Wang, Yan Li, Yan Wu, Junfeng Li, and Kefeng Li

hypothyroidism (HT) within 6 months after RAI. Given that patients with post-RAI HT may require lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy, it is essential to identify the GD patients with a high risk of early HT before RAI. The pathophysiological mechanisms

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Kusum Lata, Pinaki Dutta, Subbiah Sridhar, Minakshi Rohilla, Anand Srinivasan, G R V Prashad, Viral N Shah, and Anil Bhansali

frequent cause of hypothyroidism in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of hypothyroidism in the general population of reproductive age is ∼2–3% (6, 7) . Overt hypothyroidism is commonly associated with infertility, as thyroid hormones have a direct

Open access

Laura van Iersel, Sarah C Clement, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, Annemieke M Boot, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Bernd Granzen, K Sen Han, Geert O Janssens, Erna M Michiels, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, W Peter Vandertop, Dannis G van Vuurden, Hubert N Caron, Leontien C M Kremer, and Hanneke M van Santen

Introduction Childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) have an increased risk of developing central hypothyroidism due to damage of the hypothalamic–pituitary (HP) region, especially after exposure to cranial radiotherapy (cRT) ( 1 , 2 ). The

Open access

Amir Bashkin, Eliran Yaakobi, Marina Nodelman, and Ohad Ronen

diagnoses: overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, overt thyrotoxicosis, subclinical thyrotoxicosis and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) and/or effect of drugs. It is impossible to differentiate between the latter two based on thyroid function