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L M Mongioì, R A Condorelli, S La Vignera, and A E Calogero

Hypopituitarism GH deficiency, Hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, obesity Cortisone acetate 62.5 mg/day LT4 100 µg/day Drop out 2 F 43 Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, obesity Cortisone acetate 37.5 mg/day LT4

Open access

Bliss Anderson and Daniel L Morganstein

becoming hypothyroid (lethargy, constipation, cold intolerance, etc.) Thyroid hormone profile Hypothyroidism Thyroid hormone replacement 5.2–5.9% (8, 9) (with anti-CTLA4) Thyrotoxicosis Consider beta blockers for palpitations (23) 5

Open access

Hanna Karhapää, Siru Mäkelä, Hanna Laurén, Marjut Jaakkola, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, and Micaela Hernberg

dysfunction included primary hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, and transient thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism (thyroiditis). Hypothyroidism was defined as an increased TSH concentration above the upper normal limit and a fT4 concentration under the

Open access

Kjersti S Bakken, Kristina Randjelovic Nermo, Bjørn Gunnar Nedrebø, Tim I M Korevaar, and Tor A Strand

. Both overt hypothyroidism, as well as Graves’ hyperthyroidism, is associated with miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and low birth weight, and suboptimal offspring neurocognitive development ( 2 ). In the last two decades, some but not all

Open access

Maria Stelmachowska-Banaś and Izabella Czajka-Oraniec

, primary hypothyroidism, or insulin-deficient diabetes, are persistent and require appropriate lifelong hormonal replacement. While non-endocrine irAEs often require cessation of immunotherapy and usually resolve with immunosuppressive therapy, that is

Open access

Christin Krause, Martina Grohs, Alexander T El Gammal, Stefan Wolter, Hendrik Lehnert, Oliver Mann, Jens Mittag, and Henriette Kirchner

progression of NAFLD ( 2 ), including thyroid hormone (TH). A strong connection between systemic hypothyroidism and NAFLD has been established in humans ( 3 , 4 , 5 ) and rodents ( 6 ). Even in the euthryoid range, a link between NAFLD and higher free 3

Open access

Till Ittermann, Rehman Mehmood Khattak, Marcello R P Markus, Jens-Peter Kühn, Marie-Luise Kromrey, Giovanni Targher, Antje Steveling, Matthias Nauck, and Henry Völzke

inconsistent findings regarding the association between subclinical or overt primary hypothyroidism and NAFLD ( 2 , 3 ). While a significant positive association was reported between variably defined hypothyroidism and NAFLD in one meta-analysis ( 3 ), no

Open access

Muthiah Subramanian, Manu Kurian Baby, and Krishna G Seshadri

Siemens commercial kits according to the manufactures' instructions (Erlangen, Germany). Outcome after 131 I therapy The primary outcome of successful therapy was either hypothyroidism or euthyroidism following 131 I therapy. Hypothyroid patients had a

Open access

Navid Tabriz, Kilian Gloy, Astrid Schantzen, Dennis Fried, Dirk Weyhe, and Verena Uslar

German adult shows pathological changes of the thyroid gland ( 3 ). While not all of those affected need medical treatment, patients with benign thyroid diseases, such as non-toxic or toxic goiters, autoimmune disorders, or postoperative hypothyroidism

Open access

Xiujuan Su, Yan Zhao, Zhijuan Cao, Yingying Yang, Tony Duan, and Jing Hua

). Treatment of overt hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism during pregnancy has been suggested by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the Endocrine Society due to its negative effect on the foetus and mother ( 9 , 10 ). Although there are some