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Maria Giannakou, Katerina Saltiki, Emily Mantzou, Eleni Loukari, Georgios Philippou, Konstantinos Terzidis, Charalampos Stavrianos, Miltiades Kyprianou, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Kalliopi Karatzi, and Maria Alevizaki

hypothyroidism ( 23 , 24 , 26 ) or overt hypothyroidism ( 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ). Studies evaluating the effect of thyroxine replacement therapy in newly diagnosed hypothyroid HT patients showed an improvement in the oxidative status of these patients when they

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Ling Sun, Wenwu Zhu, Yuan Ji, Ailin Zou, Lipeng Mao, Boyu Chi, Jianguang Jiang, Xuejun Zhou, Qingjie Wang, and Fengxiang Zhang

elevated FT3 and (or) FT4 levels with reduced serum TSH level; hypothyroidism as decreased FT3 and (or) FT4 levels with increased TSH level; subclinical hyperthyroidism as decreased serum TSH level and normal serum FT4 and FT3 levels ( 22 ); and subclinical

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Shruti Khare, Anurag R Lila, Hiren Patt, Chaitanya Yerawar, Manjunath Goroshi, Tushar Bandgar, and Nalini S Shah

>275.9 nmol/l (10 μg/dl) were considered normal. Corticotropin stimulation test was not done due to unavailability of corticotrophin in India. Central hypothyroidism was defined as low <57.91 nmol/l (<4.5 μg/dl) total thyroxine with low/normal (≤4 mIU

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C E Higham, A Olsson-Brown, P Carroll, T Cooksley, J Larkin, P Lorigan, D Morganstein, P J Trainer, and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

( 19 ). If myxedema secondary to hypothyroidism is suspected, specialist endocrine input should be sought. Thyroxine should never be instigated unless cortisol deficiency is excluded as it can trigger an adrenal crisis. If in doubt, treat for

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Aaron Lerner, Patricia Jeremias, and Torsten Matthias

-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO). The disease is a common cause of low thyroid hormones with a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) but some exhibit subclinical hypothyroidism. Interestingly, symptoms of HT and celiac disease (CD) often overlap ( Table 1 ), and

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Fei Wu, Chaoming Mao, Xiao Mou, Chengcheng Xu, Tingting Zheng, Ling Bu, Xuan Luo, Qingyan Lu, and Xuefeng Wang

-γ) was mediated by the GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Discussion HT is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells and the tendency to hypothyroidism, the unique pathologic feature of which is the infiltration of many lymphocytes. Chemokines

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Amit Kumar, Maria Ghosh, and Jubbin Jagan Jacob

principal cause of euvolemic hyponatremia (EuVHNa). Although SIAD has a specific diagnostic criteria, it remains a diagnosis of exclusion and needs the absence of secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI) and hypothyroidism as an essential criterion for the

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Elin Kahlert, Martina Blaschke, Knut Brockmann, Clemens Freiberg, Onno E Janssen, Nikolaus Stahnke, Domenika Strik, Martin Merkel, Alexander Mann, Klaus-Peter Liesenkötter, and Heide Siggelkow

positive in 5%. Substitution with l -thyroxine was necessary in 38.3% of the participants to treat hypothyroidism. In a Danish study, 45% of the patients, with a mean age of 36.7 years, were revealed as positive for TPO-AB; hypothyroidism was found in 33

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Aleksandra Krygier, Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Dorota Filipowicz, and Marek Ruchała

hypothyroidism (7.7%), subclinical thyroid dysfunctions (3.3–5%) and the euthyroid state (4.7%) according to a large cohort study ( 3 ). Notably, reports indicated that complete blood count (CBC) disturbances commonly resolve after restoration of euthyroidism ( 4

Open access

Anne H van der Spek, Olga V Surovtseva, Saskia Aan, Anton T J Tool, Annemarie van de Geer, Korcan Demir, Anja L M van Gucht, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Timo K van den Berg, Eric Fliers, and Anita Boelen

predominant TR in these cells: TRα. Although THs do appear to affect immune function at the cellular level ( 25 ), the effect of hypothyroidism on the immune response in patients is not entirely clear. A number of studies suggest that hypothyroidism impairs