Bile acids are possible candidate agents in newly identified pathways through which energy expenditure may be regulated. Preclinical studies suggest that bile acids activate the enzyme type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, which deiodinates thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active triiodothyronine (T3). We aimed to evaluate the influence of bile acid exposure and incretin hormones on thyroid function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (total T3 and free T4) were measured in plasma from two human studies: i) 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and three isocaloric (500 kcal) and isovolaemic (350 ml) liquid meals with increasing fat content with concomitant ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder emptying in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes and 15 healthy age, gender and BMI-matched controls (meal-study) and ii) 50 g-OGTT and isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusions (IIGI) alone or in combination with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and/or GLP2, in ten patients with type 2 diabetes (IIGI-study). In both studies, TSH levels declined (P<0.01) similarly following all meal and infusion stimuli. T3 and T4 concentrations did not change in response to any of the applied stimuli. TSH levels declined independently of the degree of gallbladder emptying (meal-study), route of nutrient administration and infusion of gut hormones. In conclusion, intestinal bile flow and i.v. infusions of the gut hormones, GIP, GLP1 and/or GLP2, do not seem to affect thyroid function parameters. Thus, the presence of a ‘gut–thyroid–pituitary’ axis seems questionable.
David P Sonne, Asger Lund, Jens Faber, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, and Filip K Knop
Amalie R Lanng, Lærke S Gasbjerg, Natasha C Bergmann, Sigrid Bergmann, Mads M Helsted, Matthew P Gillum, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, and Filip K Knop
Ingestion of the calorically dense compound alcohol may cause metabolic disturbances including hypoglycaemia, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. The gastrointestinal tract is well recognised as a major influencer on glucose, protein and lipid metabolism, but its role in alcohol metabolism remains unclear.
To examine the effects of oral and intravenous alcohol, respectively, on plasma concentrations of several gluco-regulatory hormones including serum/plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21).
Design and methods
In a double-blinded, randomised, crossover design, we subjected 12 healthy men to intragastric ethanol infusion (IGEI) and an isoethanolaemic intravenous ethanol infusion (IVEI) (0.7 g alcohol per kg body weight), respectively, on two separate experimental days.
Isoethanolaemia during the two alcohol administration forms was obtained (P = 0.38). During both interventions, plasma glucose peaked after ~30 min and thereafter fell below baseline concentrations. GIP and GLP-1 concentrations were unaffected by the two interventions. Insulin concentrations were unaffected by IGEI but decreased during IVEI. C-peptide, insulin secretion rate and glucagon concentrations were lowered similarly during IGEI and IVEI. FGF21 concentrations increased dramatically (nine-fold) and similarly during IGEI and IVEI.
Alcohol does not seem to affect the secretion of incretin hormones but decreased insulin and glucagon secretion independently of gut-derived factors. IGEI as well as IVEI potently stimulate FGF21 secretion indicating a gut-independent effect of alcohol on FGF21 secretion in humans.
Marie Reeberg Sass, Nicolai Jacob Wewer Albrechtsen, Jens Pedersen, Kristine Juul Hare, Nis Borbye-Lorenzen, Katalin Kiss, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip Krag Knop, Steen Seier Poulsen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Jens Juul Holst, Cathrine Ørskov, and Bolette Hartmann
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key hormone in regulation of calcium homeostasis and its secretion is regulated by calcium. Secretion of PTH is attenuated during intake of nutrients, but the underlying mechanism(s) are unknown. We hypothesized that insulin acts as an acute regulator of PTH secretion.
Intact PTH was measured in plasma from patients with T1D and matched healthy individuals during 4-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and isoglycemic i.v. glucose infusions on 2 separate days. In addition, expression of insulin receptors on surgical specimens of parathyroid glands was assessed by immunochemistry (IHC) and quantitative PCR (qPCR).
The inhibition of PTH secretion was more pronounced in healthy individuals compared to patients with T1D during an OGTT (decrementalAUC0–240min: −5256 ± 3954 min × ng/L and −2408 ± 1435 min × ng/L, P = 0.030). Insulin levels correlated significantly and inversely with PTH levels, also after adjusting for levels of several gut hormones and BMI (P = 0.002). Expression of insulin receptors in human parathyroid glands was detected by both IHC and qPCR.
Our study suggests that insulin may act as an acute regulator of PTH secretion in humans.