The melanocortin-2-receptor (MC2R), also known as the ACTH receptor, is a critical component of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. The importance of MC2R in adrenal physiology is exemplified by the condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD), a potentially fatal disease characterised by isolated cortisol deficiency. MC2R mutations cause ~25% of cases. The discovery of a MC2R accessory protein MRAP, mutations of which account for ~20% of FGD, has provided insight into MC2R trafficking and signalling. MRAP is a single transmembrane domain accessory protein highly expressed in the adrenal gland and essential for MC2R expression and function. Mouse models helped elucidate the action of ACTH. The Mc2r-knockout (Mc2r−/−) mice was the first mouse model developed to have adrenal insufficiency with deficiencies in glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and catecholamines. We recently reported the generation of the Mrap−/− mice which better mimics the human FGD phenotype with isolated glucocorticoid deficiency alone. The adrenal glands of adult Mrap−/− mice were grossly dysmorphic with a thickened capsule, deranged zonation and deranged WNT4/beta-catenin and sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway signalling. Collectively, these mouse models of FGD highlight the importance of ACTH and MRAP in adrenal progenitor cell regulation, cortex maintenance and zonation.
Tatiana V Novoselova, Peter J King, Leonardo Guasti, Louise A Metherell, Adrian J L Clark and Li F Chan
C Sui, Q He, R Du, D Zhang, F Li, G Dionigi, N Liang and H Sun
This study examined the clinicopathological characteristics of 6279 N1 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients who underwent operations in our center.
This was a retrospective longitudinal analysis. We categorized the DTC patients on the basis of various lymph node (LN) characteristics. Logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models were used for the correlation analysis.
A total of 3693 (58.8%) N1a patients and 2586 (41.2%) N1b patients were included. Patients with N1b disease had larger metastatic foci (0.5 vs 0.15 cm), a greater number of metastatic LNs (5 vs 2), a greater number of dissected LNs (25 vs 7), and a smaller lymph node ratio (NR, number of positive LNs/number of sampled LNs) (23.1% vs 28.6%) than patients in stage N1a. Comparing the clinicopathological features, we found that male, increased tumor size, multifocality, and thyroiditis increased the risk of stage N1b disease (P < 0.05). Sex, multifocality, capsular infiltration, and tumor size were associated with the size of the metastatic LNs (P < 0.05). Sex, capsular infiltration, and nodular goiter were associated with the NR (P < 0.05). Female sex, tumor located in inferior lobe, maximal tumor diameter (MTD) < 1 cm, and nodular goiter were independent predictors for skip metastases (P < 0.05). MTD > 1 cm, central neck metastasis and age were independent predictors for bilateral lateral neck metastasis (BLNM) (P < 0.05).
The LN characteristics of stage N1a and N1b disease were associated with significantly different features, such as sex, tumor size, multifocality, capsular infiltration, and nodular goiter.