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  • Abstract: Bone x
  • Abstract: Mineral x
  • Abstract: Calcium x
  • Abstract: Hyperparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Hypoparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Menopause x
  • Abstract: Osteo* x
  • Abstract: Vitamin D x
  • Paediatric Endocrinology Collection x
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Johanna Öberg Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Rolf Jorde Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Yngve Figenschau Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway
Diagnostic Clinic, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Per Medbøe Thorsby Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biochemical Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Group, Oslo University Hospital, Aker, Oslo, Norway

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Sandra Rinne Dahl Hormone Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biochemical Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Group, Oslo University Hospital, Aker, Oslo, Norway

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Anne Winther Division of Neurosciences, Orthopedics and Rehabilitation Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Guri Grimnes Tromso Endocrine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway
Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso, Norway

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Objective

Combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use has been associated with higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. Here, we investigate the relation between CHC use and vitamin D metabolism to elucidate its clinical interpretation.

Methods

The cross-sectional Fit Futures 1 included 1038 adolescents. Here, a subgroup of 182 girls with available 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and measured free 25(OH)D levels, in addition to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), was investigated. Vitamin D metabolites were compared between girls using (CHC+) and not using CHC (CHC−). Further, the predictability of CHC on 25(OH)D levels was assessed in a multiple regression model including lifestyle factors. The ratios 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D (vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR)) in relation to 25(OH)D were presented in scatterplots.

Results

CHC+ (n  = 64; 35% of the girls) had higher 25(OH)D levels (mean ± s.d., 60.3 ± 22.2) nmol/L) than CHC- (n  = 118; 41.8 ± 19.3 nmol/L), P -values <0.01. The differences in 25(OH)D levels between CHC+ and CHC− were attenuated but remained significant after the adjustment of lifestyle factors. CHC+ also had higher levels of 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)2D, DBP and calcium than CHC−, whereas 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D, PTH, FGF23 and albumin were significantly lower. Free 25(OH)D and VMR did not statistically differ, and both ratios appeared similar in relation to 25(OH)D, irrespective of CHC status.

Conclusion

This confirms a clinical impact of CHC on vitamin D levels in adolescents. Our observations are likely due to an increased DBP-concentration, whereas the free 25(OH)D appears unaltered.

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Raja Padidela Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital and Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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Moira S Cheung Evelina London Children’s Hospital, London, UK

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Vrinda Saraff Birmingham Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Birmingham, UK

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Poonam Dharmaraj Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK

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X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is caused by a pathogenic variant in the PHEX gene, which leads to elevated circulating FGF23. High FGF23 causes hypophosphataemia, reduced active vitamin D concentration and clinically manifests as rickets in children and osteomalacia in children and adults. Conventional therapy for XLH includes oral phosphate and active vitamin D analogues but does not specifically treat the underlying pathophysiology of elevated FGF23-induced hypophosphataemia. In addition, adherence to conventional therapy is limited by frequent daily dosing and side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms, secondary hyperparathyroidism and nephrocalcinosis. Burosumab, a recombinant human IgG1 MAB that binds to and inhibits the activity of FGF23, is administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. In clinical trials (phase 2 and 3) burosumab was shown to improve phosphate homeostasis that consequently resolves the skeletal/non-skeletal manifestations of XLH. Burosumab was licensed in Europe (February 2018) with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, UK approving use within its marketing authorisation in October 2018. In this publication, the British Paediatric and Adolescent Bone Group (BPABG) reviewed current evidence and provide expert recommendations for care pathway and management of XLH with burosumab.

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Anna Liori Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Patras, School of Health Sciences, Patras, Greece

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Damaskini Polychroni Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Patras, School of Health Sciences, Patras, Greece

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Georgios K Markantes Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Patras, School of Health Sciences, Patras, Greece

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Maria Stamou Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Patras, School of Health Sciences, Patras, Greece

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Sarantis Livadas Endocrine Unit, Athens Medical Centre, Athens, Greece

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George Mastorakos Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolism, Aretaieion Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Neoklis Georgopoulos Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Patras, School of Health Sciences, Patras, Greece

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Adequate vitamin D levels are particularly important in pregnant women for both maternal and neonatal health. Prior studies have shown a significantly high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) among refugees. However, no study has addressed the prevalence of VDD in pregnant refugees and its effects on neonatal health. In this study, we examined the prevalence of VDD in refugee pregnant women living in Greece and compared our results with Greek pregnant inhabitants. VDD was frequent in both groups but was significantly more common in refugees (92.2 vs 67.3% of Greek women, P  = 0.003) with 70.6% of refugees having severe hypovitaminosis D (<10 ng/mL). As a result, most newborns had VDD, which affected refugee newborns to a greater extent. Our results suggest a need to screen newcomer children and pregnant women for VDD in all host countries around the world. Such a screen will appropriately guide early and effective interventions with the goal to prevent adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes.

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Kaiyu Pan Department of Paediatrics, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Chengyue Zhang Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China

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Xiaocong Yao Department of Osteoporosis, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Zhongxin Zhu Institute of Orthopaedics and Traumatology of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Aim

Ensuring adequate calcium (Ca) intake during childhood and adolescence is critical to acquire good peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis during older age. As one of the primary strategies to build and maintain healthy bones, we aimed to determine whether dietary Ca intake has an influence on bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study composed of 10,092 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary Ca intake and total BMD were taken as independent and dependent variables, respectively. To evaluate the association between them, we conducted weighted multivariate linear regression models and smooth curve fittings.

Results

There was a significantly positive association between dietary Ca intake and total BMD. The strongest association was observed in 12–15 year old whites, 8–11 year old and 16–19 year old Mexican Americans, and 16–19 year old individuals from other race/ethnicity, in whom each quintile of Ca intake was increased. We also found that there were significant inflection points in females, blacks, and 12–15 year old adolescents group, which means that their total BMD would decrease when the dietary Ca intake was more than 2.6–2.8 g/d.

Conclusions

This cross-sectional study indicated that a considerable proportion of children and adolescents aged 8–19 years would attain greater total BMD if they increased their dietary Ca intake. However, higher dietary Ca intake (more than 2.6–2.8 g/d) is associated with lower total BMD in females, blacks, and 12–15 year old adolescents group.

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Mirjana Doknic Neuroendocrine Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Marko Stojanovic Neuroendocrine Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Ivan Soldatovic Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Institute of Medical Statistics and Informatics, Belgrade, Serbia

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Tatjana Milenkovic Mother and Child Health Care Institute of Serbia ‘Dr Vukan Cupic’, Belgrade, Serbia

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Vera Zdravkovic Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
University Children’s Clinic, Belgrade, Serbia

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Maja Jesic Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
University Children’s Clinic, Belgrade, Serbia

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Sladjana Todorovic Mother and Child Health Care Institute of Serbia ‘Dr Vukan Cupic’, Belgrade, Serbia

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Katarina Mitrovic Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Mother and Child Health Care Institute of Serbia ‘Dr Vukan Cupic’, Belgrade, Serbia

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Rade Vukovic Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Mother and Child Health Care Institute of Serbia ‘Dr Vukan Cupic’, Belgrade, Serbia

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Dragana Miljic Neuroendocrine Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Dragan Savic Clinic for Neurosurgery, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

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Mihajlo Milicevic Clinic for Neurosurgery, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

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Aleksandar Stanimirovic Clinic for Neurosurgery, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

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Vojislav Bogosavljevic Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Clinic for Neurosurgery, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

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Sandra Pekic Neuroendocrine Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Emilija Manojlovic-Gacic Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Aleksandar Djukic Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia

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Danica Grujicic Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Clinic for Neurosurgery, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

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Milan Petakov Neuroendocrine Department, Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Objective

To analyze metabolic parameters, body composition (BC), and bone mineral density (BMD) in childhood-onset GH deficiency (COGHD) patients during the transition period (TP).

Design

Single- center, retrospective study was performed on 170 consecutive COGHD patients (age 19.2 ± 2.0 years, range 16–25) transferred after growth completion from two pediatric clinics to the adult endocrine unit. Two separate analyses were performed: (i) cross-sectional analysis of hormonal status, metabolic parameters, BC, and BMD at first evaluation after transfer from pediatrics to the adult department; (ii) longitudinal analysis of BC and BMD dynamics after 3 years of GH replacement therapy (rhGH) in TP.

Results

COGHD was of a congenital cause (CONG) in 50.6% subjects, tumor-related (TUMC) in 23.5%, and idiopathic (IDOP) in 25.9%. TUMC patients had increased insulin and lipids levels (P < 0.01) and lower Z score at L-spine (P < 0.05) compared to CONG and IDOP groups. Patients treated with rhGH in childhood demonstrated lower fat mass and increased BMD compared to the rhGH-untreated group (P < 0.01). Three years of rhGH after growth completion resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (12.1%) and BMD at L-spine (6.9%), parallel with a decrease in FM (5.2%).

Conclusion

The effect of rhGH in childhood is invaluable for metabolic status, BC, and BMD in transition to adulthood. Tumor-related COGHD subjects are at higher risk for metabolic abnormalities, alteration of body composition, and decreased BMD, compared to those with COGHD of other causes. Continuation of rhGH in transition is important for improving BC and BMD in patients with persistent COGHD.

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Thomas Reinehr Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Children’s Hospital, University of Witten/Herdecke, Datteln, Germany

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Martin Carlsson Endocrine Care, Pfizer Inc, New York, New York, USA

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Dionisios Chrysis Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

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Cecilia Camacho-Hübner Endocrine Care, Pfizer Inc, New York, New York, USA

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Background

The precision of adult height prediction by bone age determination in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is unknown.

Methods

The near adult height (NAH) of patients with IGHD in the KIGS database was compared retrospectively to adult height prediction calculated by the Bayley–Pinneau (BP) prediction based on bone age by Greulich–Pyle (GP) in 315 children and based on the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 (TW2) method in 121 children. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age at GH start, age at puberty, mean dose and years of of GH treatment, and maximum GH peak in stimulation test were calculated.

Results

The mean underestimation of adult height based on the BP method was at baseline 4.1 ± 0.7 cm in girls and 6.1 ± 0.6 cm in boys, at 1 year of GH treatment 2.5 ± 0.5 cm in girls and 0.9 ± 0.4 cm in boys, while at last bone age determination adult height was overestimated in mean by 0.4 ± 0.6 cm in girls and 3.8 ± 0.5 cm in boys. The mean underestimation of adult height based on the TW2 method was at baseline 5.3 ± 2.0 cm in girls and 7.9 ± 0.8 cm in boys, at 1 year of GH treatment adult height was overestimated in girls 0.1 ± 0.6 cm in girls and underestimated 4.1 ± 0.4 cm in boys, while at last bone age determination adult height was overestimated in mean by 3.1 ± 1.5 cm in girls and 3.6 ± 0.8 cm in boys.

Conclusions

Height prediction by BP and TW2 at onset of GH treatment underestimates adult height in prepubertal IGHD children, while in mean 6 years after onset of GH treatment these prediction methods overestimated adult height.

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Teodoro Durá-Travé Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Department of Pediatrics, Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain
Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdisNA), Pamplona, Spain

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Fidel Gallinas-Victoriano Department of Pediatrics, Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain

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María Malumbres-Chacon Department of Pediatrics, Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain

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Lotfi Ahmed-Mohamed Department of Pediatrics, Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain

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María Jesús Chueca -Guindulain Department of Pediatrics, Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain
Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdisNA), Pamplona, Spain

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Sara Berrade-Zubiri Department of Pediatrics, Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain
Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdisNA), Pamplona, Spain

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Objective

The objective of this study was to analyze whether some auxological characteristics or a single basal gonadotropin measurement will be sufficient to distinguish the prepubertal from pubertal status.

Methods

Auxologycal characteristics were recorded and serum LH and FSH were measured by immunochemiluminescence assays before and after GnRH stimulation test in a sample of 241 Caucasian girls with breast budding between 6- and 8-years old. Peak LH levels higher than 5 IU/L were considered a pubertal response. Area under the curve, cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity for auxologycal variables and basal gonadotropins levels were determined by receiver operating curves.

Results

There were no significant differences in age at onset, weight, height, BMI and height velocity between both groups. Bone age was significantly higher in pubertal girls (P < 0.05), although with limited discriminatory capacity. The sensitivity and specificity for the basal LH levels were 89 and 82%, respectively, for a cut off point of 0.1 IU/L. All girls in the pubertal group had a basal LH higher than 1.0 IU/L (positive predictive value of 100%). There was a wide overlap of basal FSH and LH/FSH ratio between prepubertal and pubertal girls.

Conclusions

Auxologycal characteristics should not be used only in the differential diagnosis between prepubertal from pubertal status in 6- to 8-year-old girls. We found a high specificity of a single basal LH sample and it would be useful for establishing the diagnosis of puberty in this age group, reducing the need for GnRH stimulation testing.

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Mei Li Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Yanfei Chen Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Binrong Liao Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Jing Tang Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Jingzi Zhong Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Dan Lan Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Objective

To evaluate the characteristics and significance of serum kisspeptin and makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3) levels for the diagnosis of central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls.

Method

Thirty four individuals with CPP, 17 individuals with premature thelarche (PT), and 28 age-matched prepubertal girls as normal control (NC) were recruited in this case–control study. Physical measurements included BMI and tests for breast, bone, and sexual characteristics. Biochemical measurements included serum LH, FSH, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor-1, MKRN3, and kisspeptin. Blood samples were taken from individuals with CPP and PT before the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation test and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after injection with triptorelin.

Results

Serum kisspeptin levels were higher in the CPP group when compared to the NC group (P = 0.020), while serum MKRN3 levels were lower in the two groups (P = 0.028). There were no significant differences between the CPP and PT groups as well as the PT and NC groups (all, P > 0.05). The cut-off value of serum kisspeptin differentiating patients with CPP from those without CPP was 0.40 nmol/L, with 82.4% sensitivity and 57.1% specificity, while the cut-off value of serum MKRN3 was 0.33 pmol/L, with 79.4% sensitivity and 53.6% specificity. The area under the curves (AUCs) of both kisspeptin and MKRN3 for differentiating those girls with CPP from PT were less than 0.5.

Conclusions

Serum levels of kisspeptin and MKRN3 may play an auxiliary role in predicting CPP. However, the two measurements were not able to differentiate girls with CPP from PT and prepubertal control. This study emphasizes the need to search for markers to simplify the accurate diagnosis of CPP in girls.

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