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  • Abstract: Bone x
  • Abstract: Mineral x
  • Abstract: Calcium x
  • Abstract: Hyperparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Hypoparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Menopause x
  • Abstract: Osteo* x
  • Abstract: Vitamin D x
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Keina Nishio Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki-city, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

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Akiko Tanabe Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki-city, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

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Risa Maruoka Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki-city, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

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Kiyoko Nakamura Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki-city, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

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Masaaki Takai Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki-city, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

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Tatsuharu Sekijima Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki-city, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

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Satoshi Tunetoh Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki-city, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

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Yoshito Terai Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki-city, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

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Masahide Ohmichi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki-city, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

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Objective

Although surgical menopause may increase the risks of osteoporosis, few studies have investigated the influence of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of treatments for gynecological malignancies on bone mineral density (BMD).

Methods

This study enrolled 35 premenopausal women (15 ovarian cancers (OCs), 9 endometrial cancers (ECs), and 11 cervical cancers (CCs)) who underwent surgical treatment that included bilateral oophorectomy with or without adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in OC and EC patients, or concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) in CC patients according to the established protocols at the Osaka Medical College Hospital between 2006 and 2008. The BMD of the lumbar spine (L1–L4) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and urine cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were assessed for evaluation of bone resorption and bone formation respectively. These assessments were performed at baseline and 12 months after treatment.

Results

Although the serum BAP was significantly increased only in the CC group, a rapid increase in the bone resorption marker urinary NTx was observed in all groups. The BMD, 12 months after CCRT was significantly decreased in the CC group at 91.9±5.9% (P<0.05 in comparison to the baseline).

Conclusion

This research suggests that anticancer therapies for premenopausal women with gynecological malignancies increase bone resorption and may reduce BMD, particularly in CC patients who have received CCRT. Therefore, gynecologic cancer survivors should be educated about these potential risks and complications.

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June Young Choi Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, Korea

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Jin Wook Yi Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital and College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Jun Hyup Lee Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital and College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Ra-Yeong Song Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital and College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Hyeongwon Yu Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, Korea

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Hyungju Kwon Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital and College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Young Jun Chai Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul, Korea

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Su-jin Kim Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital and College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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Kyu Eun Lee Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital and College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

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The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) expression and prognostic factors in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). mRNA sequencing and somatic mutation data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were analyzed. VDR mRNA expression was compared to clinicopathologic variables by linear regression. Tree-based classification was applied to find cutoff and patients were split into low and high VDR group. Logistic regression, Kaplan–Meier analysis, differentially expressed gene (DEG) test and pathway analysis were performed to assess the differences between two VDR groups. VDR mRNA expression was elevated in PTC than that in normal thyroid tissue. VDR expressions were high in classic and tall-cell variant PTC and lateral neck node metastasis was present. High VDR group was also associated with classic and tall cell subtype, AJCC stage IV and lower recurrence-free survival. DEG test reveals that 545 genes were upregulated in high VDR group. Thyroid cancer-related pathways were enriched in high VDR group in pathway analyses. VDR mRNA overexpression was correlated with worse prognostic factors such as subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma that are known to be worse prognosis, lateral neck node metastasis, advanced stage and recurrence-free survival.

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Ozlem Atan Sahin Department of Pediatrics, Acıbadem University School of Medicine, Atasehir, Istanbul, Turkey

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Damla Goksen Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey

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Aysel Ozpinar Department of Biochemistry, Acıbadem University, School of Medicine, Atasehir, Istanbul, Turkey

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Muhittin Serdar Department of Biochemistry, Acıbadem University, School of Medicine, Atasehir, Istanbul, Turkey

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Huseyin Onay Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey

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Background

There have been studies focused on FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus with controversial results.

Methods

This present study is a meta-analysis investigating the association between FokI, ApaI, TaqI and BsmI polymorphisms of VDR gene and type 1 DM in children. A literature search was performed using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane and PubMed. Any study was considered eligible for inclusion if at least one of FokI, ApaI, TaqI and BsmI polymorphisms was determined, and outcome was type 1 DM at pediatric age.

Results

A total of 9 studies comprising 1053 patients and 1017 controls met the study inclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) of the FokI, ApaI, TaqI and BsmI polymorphisms were combined and calculated. Forest plots and funnel plots of the OR value distributions were drawn. Our meta-analysis has demonstrated statistically significant associations between DM1 and VDR genotypes, BsmIBB (P < 0.05), BsmIBb, (P < 0.05), BsmIbb (P < 0.05), TaqITT (P < 0.05) and TaqItt (P < 0.05) in children.

Conclusion

The results indicated that BsmIBB, BsmIBb and TaqItt polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of type 1 DM, whereas BsmIbb and TaqITT had protective effect for type 1 DM in children.

Open access
Elinor Chelsom Vogt Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
K.G. Jebsen Center for Autoimmune Disorders, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

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Francisco Gómez Real Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

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Eystein Sverre Husebye Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
K.G. Jebsen Center for Autoimmune Disorders, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

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Sigridur Björnsdottir Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Bryndis Benediktsdottir Medical Faculty, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Department of Sleep, Landspitali University Hospital Reykjavík, Reykjavik, Iceland

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Randi Jacobsen Bertelsen Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

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Pascal Demoly University Hospital of Montpellier, IDESP, Univ Montpellier-Inserm, Montpellier, France

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Karl Anders Franklin Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Leire Sainz de Aja Gallastegui Unit of Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Health, Basque Government, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain

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Francisco Javier Callejas González Department of Respiratory Medicine, Albacete University Hospital, Albacete, Spain

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Joachim Heinrich Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany
Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Mathias Holm Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Nils Oscar Jogi Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

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Benedicte Leynaert Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm U1018, Center for Epidemiology and Population Health, Integrative Respiratory Epidemiology Team, Villejuif, France

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Eva Lindberg Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Andrei Malinovschi Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

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Jesús Martínez-Moratalla Pneumology Service of the General University Hospital of Albacete, Albacete, Spain
Albacete Faculty of Medicine, Castilla-La Mancha University, Albacete, Spain

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Raúl Godoy Mayoral Department of Respiratory Medicine, Albacete University Hospital, Albacete, Spain

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Anna Oudin Section of Sustainable Health, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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Antonio Pereira-Vega Juan Ramón Jiménez University Hospital in Huelva, Huelva, Spain

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Chantal Raherison Semjen INSERM, EpiCene Team U1219, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France

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Vivi Schlünssen Department of Public Health, Environment, Work and Health, Danish Ramazzini Centre, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
The National Research Center for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Kai Triebner Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

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Marianne Øksnes Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
K.G. Jebsen Center for Autoimmune Disorders, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

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Objective

To investigate markers of premature menopause (<40 years) and specifically the prevalence of autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in European women.

Design

Postmenopausal women were categorized according to age at menopause and self-reported reason for menopause in a cross-sectional analysis of 6870 women.

Methods

Variables associated with the timing of menopause and hormone measurements of 17β-estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone were explored using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Specific immunoprecipitating assays of steroidogenic autoantibodies against 21-hydroxylase (21-OH), side-chain cleavage enzyme (anti-SCC) and 17alpha-hydroxylase (17 OH), as well as NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 were used to identify women with likely autoimmune POI.

Results

Premature menopause was identified in 2.8% of women, and these women had higher frequencies of nulliparity (37.4% vs 19.7%), obesity (28.7% vs 21.4%), osteoporosis (17.1% vs 11.6%), hormone replacement therapy (59.1% vs 36.9%) and never smokers (60.1% vs 50.9%) (P < 0.05), compared to women with menopause ≥40 years. Iatrogenic causes were found in 91 (47%) and non-ovarian causes in 27 (14%) women, while 77 (39%) women were classified as POI of unknown cause, resulting in a 1.1% prevalence of idiopathic POI. After adjustments nulliparity was the only variable significantly associated with POI (odds ratio 2.46; 95% CI 1.63–3.42). Based on the presence of autoantibodies against 21 OH and SCC, 4.5% of POI cases were of likely autoimmune origin.

Conclusion

Idiopathic POI affects 1.1% of all women and almost half of the women with premature menopause. Autoimmunity explains 4.5% of these cases judged by positive steroidogenic autoantibodies.

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Federica Saponaro Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, Laboratory of Biochemistry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Endocrinology Unit 2, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Alessandro Saba Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, Laboratory of Biochemistry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Laboratory of Clinical Pathology, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Sabina Frascarelli Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, Laboratory of Biochemistry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Concetta Prontera Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa, Italy

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Aldo Clerico Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa, Italy

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Marco Scalese Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Pisa, Italy

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Maria Rita Sessa Laboratory of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Filomena Cetani Endocrinology Unit 2, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Simona Borsari Endocrinology Unit 2, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Elena Pardi Endocrinology Unit 2, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Antonella Marvelli Department of Translational Research and of New Surgical and Medical Technologies, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Claudio Marcocci Endocrinology Unit 2, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Claudio Passino Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa, Italy

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Riccardo Zucchi Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, Laboratory of Biochemistry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

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Objectives

The aims of this paper were to evaluate the levels of Vitamin D (VitD) in patients with heart failure (HF), compared to a control group, to assess the effects of VitD on HF outcome and to compare VitD measurement between LIAISON immunoassay and HPLC-MS-MS methods in this population.

Design and Methods

We collected clinical, biochemical and outcome data from 247 patients with HF and in a subgroup of 151 patients, we measured VitD both with LIAISON and HPLC-MS-MS.

Results

HF patients had statistically lower 25OHD levels (45.2 ± 23.7 nmol/L vs 58.2 ± 24.0 nmol/L, P < 0.001) and a statistically higher prevalence of VitD insufficiency (61.1% vs 39.5%, P < 0.001) and deficiency (24.7% vs 6.6%, P < 0.001), compared to healthy controls. There was a significant inverse relationship between baseline 25OHD and risk of HF-related death, with a HR of 0.59 (95% CI 0.37–0.92, P = 0.02), confirmed in a multivariate adjusted analysis. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses showed that VitD insufficiency was associated with reduced survival in HF patients (log rank P = 0.017). There was a good agreement between LIAISON and HPLC-MS-MS (Cohen’s kappa coefficient 0.70), but the prevalence of VitD insufficiency was significantly higher with the former compared to the latter method (58.3%, n = 88 vs 55.6%, n = 84, P < 0.001). LIAISON underestimated the 25OHD levels and showed a mean relative bias of −0.739% with 95% of limits of agreement (−9.00 to +7.52%), when compared to HPLC-MS-MS.

Conclusions

25OHD levels adequately measured by HPLC-MS-MS showed to be low in HF population and to be correlated with HF-related risk of death.

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Sofya Gronskaia Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Galina Melnichenko Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Liudmila Rozhinskaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Tatiana Grebennikova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Elizaveta Mamedova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ekaterina Pigarova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Elena Przhialkovskaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Larisa Dzeranova Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Ivan Dedov Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Valentin Fadeyev I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia

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Maria Luisa Brandi University of Florence, Surgery and Translational Medicine, Piereccaini, Firenze, Italy

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Zhanna Belaya Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia

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Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rare endocrine disorders, characterized by low serum calcium due to inappropriate parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels or resistance to its action. There is little epidemiological information regarding chronic hypoparathyroidism in Russia. This study aims to build a registry database of Russian patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism who were referred for hospital treatment in order to conduct initial analysis of clinical presentations and hospital management. The Italian registry model was taken to be able to integrate our data in the future. Two hundred patients with hypoparathyroidism (n = 194) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (n = 6) were enrolled over 2 years (2017–2019). The most frequent cause of hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (82.5%, mostly females), followed by idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (10%), syndromic forms of genetic hypoparathyroidism (4.5%) and forms of defective PTH action (3%). Calcium supplements and alfacalcidol were prescribed in most cases. However, a minority of patients (n = 6) needed to receive teriparatide as the only way to maintain calcium levels and to prevent symptoms of hypocalcemia. Consequently, substitution treatment with parathyroid hormone should be available in certain cases of hypoparathyroidism. This database will be useful to estimate the potential requirement for recombinant PTH in Russia and standards for clinical and therapeutic approaches.

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Cristina Lamas Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Albacete, Spain

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Elena Navarro Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain

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Anna Casterás Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

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Paloma Portillo Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, Spain

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Victoria Alcázar Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Leganés, Spain

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María Calatayud Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Univeristario Doce de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

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Cristina Álvarez-Escolá Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain

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Julia Sastre Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain

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Evangelina Boix Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, Elche, Spain

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Lluis Forga Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

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Almudena Vicente Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain

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Josep Oriola Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics Department, Hospital Clínic i Universitari de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Jordi Mesa Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain

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Nuria Valdés Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain

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Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Bone and renal complications are common. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but the best timing for surgery is controversial and predictors of persistence and recurrence are not well known. Our study describes the clinical characteristics and the surgical outcomes, after surgery and in the long term, of the patients with MEN1 and primary hyperparathyroidism included in the Spanish Registry of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas (REGMEN). Eighty-nine patients (49 men and 40 women, 34.2 ± 13 years old) were included. Sixty-four out of the 89 underwent surgery: a total parathyroidectomy was done in 13 patients, a subtotal parathyroidectomy in 34 and a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy in 15. Remission rates were higher after a total or a subtotal parathyroidectomy than after a less than subtotal (3/4 and 20/22 vs 7/12, P < 0.05), without significant differences in permanent hypoparathyroidism (1/5, 9/23 and 0/11, N.S.). After a median follow-up of 111 months, 20 of the 41 operated patients with long-term follow-up had persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. We did not find differences in disease-free survival rates between different techniques, patients with or without permanent hypoparathyroidism and patients with different mutated exons, but a second surgery was more frequent after a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy.

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Anna Gorbacheva Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Anna Eremkina Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Daria Goliusova Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Julia Krupinova Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Natalia Mokrysheva Endocrinology Research Center, Moscow, Russian Federation

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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most common cause of hereditary primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Bone disorders are considered one of the key symptoms in PHPT present with the significant reduction in bone mineral density and low-energy fractures. Previously, these bone disorders were believed to be caused solely by the increase in the level of parathyroid hormone and its subsequent effect on bone resorption. The current paradigm, however, states that the mutations in the menin gene, which cause the development of MEN1, can also affect the metabolism of the cells of the osteoid lineage. This review analyzes both the proven and the potential intracellular mechanisms through which menin can affect bone metabolism.

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Emmanuelle Noirrit Inserm U1048 (I2MC), CHU de Toulouse and Université Toulouse III, I2MC, Toulouse, France
Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Toulouse III, Toulouse, France

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Mélissa Buscato Inserm U1048 (I2MC), CHU de Toulouse and Université Toulouse III, I2MC, Toulouse, France

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Marion Dupuis Inserm U1048 (I2MC), CHU de Toulouse and Université Toulouse III, I2MC, Toulouse, France

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Bernard Payrastre Inserm U1048 (I2MC), CHU de Toulouse and Université Toulouse III, I2MC, Toulouse, France
CHU de Toulouse, Laboratoire d’Hématologie, Toulouse, France

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Coralie Fontaine Inserm U1048 (I2MC), CHU de Toulouse and Université Toulouse III, I2MC, Toulouse, France

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Jean-François Arnal Inserm U1048 (I2MC), CHU de Toulouse and Université Toulouse III, I2MC, Toulouse, France

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Marie-Cécile Valera Inserm U1048 (I2MC), CHU de Toulouse and Université Toulouse III, I2MC, Toulouse, France
Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Toulouse III, Toulouse, France

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Estrogen–progestin therapy was previously considered as the standard of care for managing bothersome symptoms associated with menopause, but it increases risks of breast cancer and of thromboembolism. The combination of conjugated estrogen (CE) with bazedoxifene (BZA) named tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC) was designed to minimize or even abrogate the undesirable effects on breast, while maintaining the beneficial effects such as prevention of osteoporosis and suppression of climacteric symptoms. The risk on thromboembolism associated with TSEC is unknown, although the clinical available data are reassuring. The aim of this study was to define the impact of a chronic administration of CE, BZA or CE + BZA on hemostasis and thrombosis in ovariectomized mice. As expected, CE, but not BZA neither CE + BZA, induced uterine and vagina hypertrophy. As previously demonstrated for 17β-estradiol (E2), we found that CE (i) increased tail-bleeding time, (ii) prevented occlusive thrombus formation in injured carotid artery and (iii) protected against collagen/epinephrine-induced thromboembolism. Thus, whereas BZA antagonized CE action on reproductive tissues, it had no impact on the effect of CE on hemostasis, thromboembolism and arterial thrombosis in mice. CE + BZA shared the anti-thrombotic actions of CE in these mouse models. If a similar process is at work in women, CE combined with BZA could contribute to minimize the risk of thrombosis associated with hormone replacement therapy.

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Panagiotis Anagnostis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Irene Lambrinoudaki 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece

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John C Stevenson National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

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Dimitrios G Goulis Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of major concern in women entering menopause. The changing hormonal milieu predisposes them to increased CVD risk, due to a constellation of risk factors, such as visceral obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysregulation in glucose homeostasis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and arterial hypertension. However, an independent association of menopause per se with increased risk of CVD events has only been proven for early menopause (<45 years). Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) ameliorates most of the CVD risk factors mentioned above. Transdermal estrogens are the preferable regimen, since they do not increase triglyceride concentrations and they are not associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Although administration of MHT should be considered on an individual basis, MHT may reduce CVD morbidity and mortality, if commenced during the early postmenopausal period (<60 years or within ten years since the last menstrual period). In women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), MHT should be administered at least until the average age of menopause (50–52 years). MHT is contraindicated in women with a history of VTE and is not currently recommended for the sole purpose of CVD prevention. The risk of breast cancer associated with MHT is generally low and is mainly conferred by the progestogen. Micronized progesterone and dydrogesterone are associated with lower risk compared to other progestogens.

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