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  • Abstract: Hyperparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Hypoparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Menopause x
  • Abstract: Osteo* x
  • Abstract: Vitamin D x
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Ying-Lien Cheng Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Ting-I Lee Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Yu-Mei Chien Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Ting-Wei Lee Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Yi-Jen Chen Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
Cardiovascular Research Center, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
Taipei Heart Institute, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Vitamin D deficiency is associated with hyperlipidemia, but it remains unclear whether vitamin D supplementation reduces serum lipid levels. The aims of this study were to investigate the associations between increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and lipid levels and identify the characteristics of people with or without lipid reduction associated with increased 25(OH)D levels. The medical records of 118 individuals (53 men; mean age, 54.4 ± 10.6 years) whose serum 25(OH)D levels increased between 2 consecutive measurements were retrospectively reviewed. People with increased 25(OH)D levels (from 22.7 (17.6–29.2) to 32.1 (25.6–36.8) mg/dL; P < 0.01) had a significant reduction in serum levels of triglycerides (TGs) (from 111.0 (80–164) to 104.5 (73–142) mg/dL; P < 0.01) and total cholesterol (TC) (from 187.5 (155–213) to 181.0 (150–210) mg/dL; P < 0.05). The individuals who responded to vitamin D (≥10% reduction in TG or TC levels) exhibited significantly higher baseline TG and TC levels than those who did not. Only patients with hyperlipidemia (not those without hyperlipidemia) at baseline exhibited significantly reduced TG and TC levels at follow-up. However, increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly correlated with decreasing lipid levels in individuals with baseline 25(OH)D levels less than 30 ng/mL and in individuals aged 50–65 years (not in patients younger than 50 years or older than 65 years). In conclusion, increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations may be potentially helpful for the treatment of hyperlipidemia in people with vitamin D deficiency.

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Giuseppe Grande Unit of Andrology and Reproductive Medicine, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Andrea Graziani Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Antonella Di Mambro Unit of Andrology and Reproductive Medicine, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Riccardo Selice Unit of Andrology and Reproductive Medicine, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Alberto Ferlin Unit of Andrology and Reproductive Medicine, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy
Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

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Low bone mass is common in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), with a prevalence of 6–15% of osteoporosis and of 25–48% of osteopenia. Reduced bone mass has been described since adolescence and it might be related to both reduced bone formation and higher bone resorption. Although reduced testosterone levels are clearly involved in the pathogenesis, this relation is not always evident. Importantly, fracture risk is increased independently from bone mineral density (BMD) and testosterone levels. Here we discuss the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in patients with KS, with a particular focus on the role of testosterone and testis function. In fact, other hormonal mechanisms, such as global Leydig cell dysfunction, causing reduced insulin-like factor 3 and 25-OH vitamin D levels, and high follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels, might be involved. Furthermore, genetic aspects related to the supernumerary X chromosome might be involved, as well as androgen receptor expression and function. Notably, body composition, skeletal mass and strength, and age at diagnosis are other important aspects. Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is recommended in the clinical workflow for patients with KS to measure BMD, recent evidence suggests that alterations in the microarchitecture of the bones and vertebral fractures might be present even in subjects with normal BMD. Therefore, analysis of trabecular bone score, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and vertebral morphometry seem promising tools to better estimate the fracture risk of patients with KS. This review also summarizes the evidence on the best available treatments for osteoporosis in men with KS, with or without hypogonadism.

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Maxime Duval Department of Medicine, Clinique Jules Verne, Nantes, France

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Kalyane Bach-Ngohou Department of Biology, Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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Damien Masson Department of Biology, Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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Camille Guimard Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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Philippe Le Conte Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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David Trewick Department of Medicine, Clinique Jules Verne, Nantes, France
Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Nantes, Nantes, France

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Objective

Severe hypocalcemia (Ca <1.9 mmol/L) is often considered an emergency because of a potential risk of cardiac arrest or seizures. However, there is little evidence to support this. The aim of our study was to assess whether severe hypocalcemia was associated with immediately life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias or neurological complications.

Methods

A retrospective observational study was carried out over a 2-year period in the Adult Emergency Department (ED) of Nantes University Hospital. All patients who had a protein-corrected calcium concentration measure were eligible for inclusion. Patients with multiple myeloma were excluded. The primary outcome was the number of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and/or neurological complications during the stay in the ED.

Results

A total of 41,823 patients had protein-corrected calcium (pcCa) concentrations measured, 155 had severe hypocalcemia, 22 were excluded because of myeloma leaving 133 for analysis. Median pcCa concentration was 1.73 mmol/L (1.57–1.84). Seventeen (12.8%) patients presented a life-threatening condition, 14 (10.5%) neurological and 3 (2.2%) cardiac during ED stay. However, these complications could be explained by the presence of underlying co-morbidities and or electrolyte disturbances other than hypocalcemia. Overall, 24 (18%) patients died in hospital. Vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease and hypoparathyroidism were the most frequently found causes of hypocalcemia.

Conclusion

Thirteen percent of patients with severe hypocalcemia presented a life-threatening cardiac or neurological complication on the ED. However, a perfectly valid alternative cause could account for these complications. Further research is warranted to define the precise role of hypocalcemia.

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Zhen-yu Song Department of Urology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Qiuming Yao Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Zhiyuan Zhuo Department of Urology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Zhe Ma Department of Urology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Gang Chen Department of Urology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Previous studies investigating the association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with prognosis of prostate cancer yielded controversial results. We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis to elucidate the relationship. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies up to July 15, 2018. We performed a dose–response meta-analysis using random-effect model to calculate the summary hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI of mortality in patients with prostate cancer. Seven eligible cohort studies with 7808 participants were included. The results indicated that higher vitamin D level could reduce the risk of death among prostate cancer patients. The summary HR of prostate cancer-specific mortality correlated with an increment of every 20 nmol/L in circulating vitamin D level was 0.91, with 95% CI 0.87–0.97, P = 0.002. The HR for all-cause mortality with the increase of 20 nmol/L vitamin D was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, P = 0.01). Sensitivity analysis suggested the pooled HRs were stable and not obviously changed by any single study. No evidence of publications bias was observed. This meta-analysis suggested that higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was associated with a reduction of mortality in prostate cancer patients and vitamin D is an important protective factor in the progression and prognosis of prostate cancer.

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Maria Luisa Brandi Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Fondazione Italiana Ricerca sulle Malattie dell’Osso (FIRMO Onlus), Florence, Italy

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Stefania Bandinelli Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Toscana Centro, Florence, Italy

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Teresa Iantomasi Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Francesca Giusti Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Eleonora Talluri Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Giovanna Sini Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Fabrizio Nannipieri Clinical Research, Abiogen Pharma, Pisa, Italy

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Santina Battaglia Clinical Research, Abiogen Pharma, Pisa, Italy

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Riccardo Giusti Clinical Research, Abiogen Pharma, Pisa, Italy

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Colin Gerard Egan CE Medical Writing SRLS, Pisa, Italy

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Luigi Ferrucci Longitudinal Study Section, Translation Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

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Objective

This study aimed to evaluate the association between the endocrine-disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA) on circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OD)D) and other vitamin D metabolites in an elderly population in Italy.

Methods

This was a retrospective analysis of the InCHIANTI Biobank in Italy. The association between vitamin D metabolites namely 1,25(OH)D, 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and BPA levels were evaluated. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association between predictor variables with 1,25(OH)D or 25(OH)D levels.

Results

Samples from 299 individuals aged 72.8 ± 15.7 years were examined. Mean levels of BPA, 1,25(OH)D and 25(OH)D were 351.2 ± 511.6 ng/dL, 43.7 ± 16.9 pg/mL and 20.2 ± 12.1 ng/mL, respectively. One hundred eighty individuals (60.2%) were deficient (<20 ng/mL) in 25(OH)D and this population also presented higher BPA levels (527.9 ± 1289.5 ng/dL vs 86.9 ± 116.8 ng/dL, P  < 0.0001). Univariate analysis revealed that BPA levels were negatively correlated with both 1,25(OH)D (r= −0.67, P  < 0.0001) and 25(OH)D (r= −0.69, P  < 0.0001). Multivariate regression revealed that PTH (β: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.34, −0.13, P  < 0.0001) and BPA (β: −0.25, 95% CI: −0.3, −0.19, P  < 0.0001) remained significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels while BPA was also associated with 1,25(OH)D levels (β: −0.19, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.15, P  < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that a BPA concentration of >113 ng/dL was the best cut-off to predict individuals deficient in 25(OH)D (area under the curve: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82–0.90, P  < 0.0001).

Conclusion

The strong negative association between BPA and vitamin D in this elderly population warrants further investigation, particularly since this population is already at greatest risk of hypovitaminosis and fracture.

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Eliana Piantanida Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Daniela Gallo Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Giovanni Veronesi Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
Research Center in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (EPIMED), University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Eugenia Dozio Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Eugenia Trotti Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Adriana Lai Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Silvia Ippolito Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Jessica Sabatino Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Maria Laura Tanda Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Antonio Toniolo Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Marco Ferrario Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
Research Center in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (EPIMED), University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Luigi Bartalena Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

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Objective

The aim of this observational study was to clarify the link between vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with visceral obesity.

Design and methods

One hundred ninety-six consecutive patients (152 women; mean age 51 ± 13 years) with visceral obesity (mean body weight 103 ± 20 kg, mean waist circumference (WC) 119 ± 13 cm) were enrolled at the Obesity Outpatient Clinic of the University of Insubria in Varese. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Laboratory tests, including vitamin D (25(OH)D)), fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests were assessed. Vitamin D status was defined according to the European Society of Endocrinology guidelines, MetS to the 2009 harmonized definition.

Results

An inverse association emerged among 25(OH)D, body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.001) and WC (all P = 0.003). Serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely related to FBG and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (respectively, P = 0.01 and 0.02). Median serum 25(OH)D levels were 13.3 ng/mL (CI 95% 12; 15) in MetS and 16 ng/mL (CI 95% 14; 18) (P = 0.01) in non-MetS patients. Among patients with MetS, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were related to higher risk of hypertension (HT) (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, CI 95%, 0.7;4) and hyperglycemia (IFG)/type 2 diabetes (OR 5.5, CI 95% 2; 14).

Conclusion

Vitamin D status and MetS are inversely correlated in visceral obesity, particularly with regard to glucose homeostasis and BP. More extensive studies are required to investigate the potential for causality.

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Julia Herteux Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Simon Johannes Geiger Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Christina Starchl Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Johanna Windisch Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Theresa Lerchl Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Adelina Tmava-Berisha Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Gerit Wünsch Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Kathrin Eller Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Karin Amrein Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, Graz, Austria

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Objective

Chronic hypoparathyroidism (HP) is associated with acute and chronic complications, especially those related to hypocalcemia. We aimed to analyze details on hospital admissions and the reported deaths in affected patients.

Design and methods

In a retrospective analysis, we reviewed the medical history of 198 patients diagnosed with chronic HP over a continuous period of up to 17 years at the Medical University Graz.

Results

The mean age in our mostly female cohort (70.2%) was 62.6 ± 18.7 years. The etiology was predominantly postsurgical (84.8%). About 87.4% of patients received standard medication (oral calcium/vitamin D), 15 patients (7.6%) used rhPTH1–84/Natpar® and 10 patients (4.5%) had no/unknown medication. Two hundred and nineteen emergency room (ER) visits and 627 hospitalizations were documented among 149 patients, and 49 patients (24.7%) did not record any hospital admissions. According to symptoms and decreased serum calcium levels, 12% of ER (n = 26) visits and 7% of hospitalizations (n = 44) were likely attributable to HP. A subgroup of 13 patients (6.5%) received kidney transplants prior to the HP diagnosis. In eight of these patients, parathyroidectomy for tertiary renal hyperparathyroidism was the cause of permanent HP. The mortality was 7.8% (n = 12), and the causes of death appeared to be unrelated to HP. Although the awareness for HP was low, calcium levels were documented in 71% (n = 447) of hospitalizations.

Conclusions

Acute symptoms directly related to HP did not represent the primary cause of ER visits. However, comorbidities (e.g. renal/cardiovascular diseases) associated with HP played a key role in hospitalizations and deaths.

Significance statement

Hypoparathyroidism (HP) is the most common complication after anterior neck surgery. Yet, it remains underdiagnosed as well as undertreated, and the burden of disease and long-term complications are usually underestimated. There are few detailed data on emergency room (ER) visits hospitalizations and death in patients with chronic HP, although acute symptoms due to hypo-/hypercalcemia are easily detectable. We show that HP is not the primary cause for presentation but that hypocalcemia is a typical laboratory finding (when ordered) and thus may contribute to subjective symptoms. Patients often present with renal/cardiovascular/oncologic illness for which HP is known to be a contributing factor. A small but very special group (n = 13, 6.5%) are patients after kidney transplantations who showed a high ER hospitalization rate. Surprisingly, HP was never the cause for their frequent hospitalizations but rather the result of chronic kidney disease. The most frequent cause for HP in these patients was parathyroidectomy due to tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The causes of death in 12 patients appeared to be unrelated to HP, but we found a high prevalence of chronic organ damages/comorbidities related to it in this group. Less than 25% documented HP correctly in the discharge letters, which indicates a high potential for improvement.

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Rasmus Reinke Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Stefano Christian Londero Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Martin Almquist Department of Surgery, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden

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Lars Rejnmark Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Lars Rolighed Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

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Objective

Total thyroidectomy is associated with a high risk of postoperative hypoparathyroidism, mainly due to the unintended surgical damage to the parathyroid glands or their blood supply. It is possible that surgeons who also perform parathyroid surgery see lower rates of postoperative hypoparathyroidism. In a single institution, we investigated the effects of restricting total thyroidectomy operations for Graves’ disease to two surgeons who performed both thyroid and parathyroid surgeries. We aimed to evaluate the rates of postoperative hypoparathyroidism in a 10-year period with primary attention toward patients with Graves’ disease.

Design

Retrospective cohort study from a single institution.

Methods

We defined the rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy as the need for active vitamin D 6 months postoperatively. Between 2012 and 2016, seven surgeons performed all thyroidectomies. From January 2017, only surgeons also performing parathyroid surgery carried out thyroidectomies for Graves’ disease.

Results

We performed total thyroidectomy in 543 patients. The rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism decreased from 28% in 2012–2014 to 6% in 2020–2021. For patients with Graves’ disease, the rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism decreased from 36% (13 out of 36) in 2015–2016 to 2% (1 out of 56) in 2020–2021. In cancer patients, the rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism decreased from 30% (14 out of 46) in 2012–2014 to 10% (10 out of 51) in 2020–2021.

Conclusion

Restricting thyroidectomy to surgeons who also performed parathyroid operations reduced postoperative hypoparathyroidism markedly. Accordingly, we recommend centralisation of the most difficult thyroid operations to centres and surgeons with extensive experience in parathyroid surgery.

Significance statement

Thyroid surgery is performed by many different surgeons with marked differences in outcome. Indeed, the risk of postoperative permanent hypoparathyroidism may be very high in low-volume centres. This serious condition affects the quality of life and increases long-term morbidity and the patients develop a life-long dependency of medical treatments. We encountered a high risk of hypoparathyroidism after the operation for Graves’ disease and restricted the number of surgeons to two for these operations. Further, these surgeons were experienced in both thyroid and parathyroid surgeries. We show a dramatic reduction in postoperative hypoparathyroidism after this change. Accordingly, we recommend centralisation of total thyroidectomy to surgeons with experience in both thyroid and parathyroid procedures.

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Marc Blondon Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Emmanuel Biver Division of Bone Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Olivia Braillard Division of Primary Care Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Marc Righini Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Pierre Fontana Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Alessandro Casini Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

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Objective

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risks of arterial and venous cardiovascular events. Hypothetically, supplementation with vitamin D may lead to a less prothrombotic phenotype, as measured by global coagulation assays and fibrin clot structure.

Methods

In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled adult outpatients attending the Primary Care Division of the Geneva University Hospitals with a severe vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25-OHD) <25 nmol/L), excluding obese patients or with a recent acute medical event. We evaluated changes in coagulation times, thrombin generation assay, clot formation and clot lysis time, 25-OHD and parathormone before and 1–3 months after cholecalciferol oral supplementation with one-time 300,000 IU then 800 IU daily. Paired t-tests with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 compared absolute mean differences.

Results

The 48 participants had a mean age of 43.8 ± 13.8 years. After supplementation, 25-OHD levels increased from 17.9 ± 4.6 nmol/L to 62.5 ± 20.7 nmol/L 6.4 ± 3.0 weeks after inclusion. Endogenous thrombin potential and thrombin generation peak values both decreased significantly (−95.4 nM × min (95%CI −127.9 to −62.8), P < 0.001; −15.1 nM (−23.3 to −6.8), P < 0.001). The maximum absorbance by turbidimetry decreased significantly (P = 0.001) after supplementation. There was no change in clot lysis time, coagulation times or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and homocysteine levels.

Conclusions

In severe vitamin D deficiency, a high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation was associated with a reduction in thrombin generation and an average decreased number of fibrin protofibrils per fibers and fibrin fiber size measured by turbidimetry. This suggests that severe vitamin D deficiency may be associated with a potentially reversible prothrombotic profile.

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R Perchard Division of Developmental Biology & Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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L Magee Division of Developmental Biology & Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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A Whatmore Division of Developmental Biology & Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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F Ivison Department of Biochemistry, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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P Murray Division of Developmental Biology & Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK

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A Stevens Division of Developmental Biology & Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

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M Z Mughal Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK

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S Ehtisham Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK

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J Campbell Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK

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S Ainsworth Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK

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M Marshall Department of Biochemistry, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

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M Bone Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK

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I Doughty Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK

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P E Clayton Division of Developmental Biology & Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK

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Background

Higher 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with lower HbA1c, but there are limited UK interventional trials assessing the effect of cholecalciferol on HbA1c.

Aims

(1) To assess the baseline 25(OH)D3 status in a Manchester cohort of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (2) To determine the effect of cholecalciferol administration on HbA1c.

Methods

Children with T1D attending routine clinic appointments over three months in late winter/early spring had blood samples taken with consent. Participants with a 25(OH)D3 level <50 nmol/L were treated with a one-off cholecalciferol dose of 100,000 (2–10 years) or 160,000 (>10 years) units. HbA1c levels before and after treatment were recorded.

Results

Vitamin D levels were obtained from 51 children. 35 were Caucasian, 11 South Asian and 5 from other ethnic groups. 42 were vitamin D deficient, but 2 were excluded from the analysis. All South Asian children were vitamin D deficient, with mean 25(OH)D3 of 28 nmol/L. In Caucasians, there was a negative relationship between baseline 25(OH)D3 level and HbA1c (r = −0.484, P < 0.01). In treated participants, there was no significant difference in mean HbA1c at 3 months (t = 1.010, P = 0.328) or at 1 year (t = −1.173, P = 0.248) before and after treatment. One-way ANCOVA, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI and diabetes duration showed no difference in Δ HbA1c level.

Conclusion

We report important findings at baseline, but in children treated with a stat dose of cholecalciferol, there was no effect on HbA1c. Further studies with larger sample sizes and using maintenance therapy are required.

Open access