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  • Abstract: Bone x
  • Abstract: Mineral x
  • Abstract: Calcium x
  • Abstract: Hyperparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Hypoparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Menopause x
  • Abstract: Osteo* x
  • Abstract: Vitamin D x
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J A Tamblyn Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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C Jenkinson Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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D P Larner Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK

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M Hewison Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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M D Kilby Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Birmingham Women’s Foundation Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK

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Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women and may contribute to adverse events in pregnancy such as preeclampsia (PET). To date, studies of vitamin D and PET have focused primarily on serum concentrations vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) later in pregnancy. The aim here was to determine whether a more comprehensive analysis of vitamin D metabolites earlier in pregnancy could provide predictors of PET. Using samples from the SCOPE pregnancy cohort, multiple vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in paired serum and urine prior to the onset of PET symptoms. Samples from 50 women at pregnancy week 15 were analysed, with 25 (50%) developing PET by the end of the pregnancy and 25 continuing with uncomplicated pregnancy. Paired serum and urine from non-pregnant women (n = 9) of reproductive age were also used as a control. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, 1,25(OH)2D3, 24,25(OH)2D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 were measured and showed no significant difference between women with uncomplicated pregnancies and those developing PET. As previously reported, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 was higher in all pregnant women (in the second trimester), but serum 25(OH)D2 was also higher compared to non-pregnant women. In urine, 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 were quantifiable, with both metabolites demonstrating significantly lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of both of these metabolites in those destined to develop PET. These data indicate that analysis of urinary metabolites provides an additional insight into vitamin D and the kidney, with lower urinary 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 excretion being an early indicator of a predisposition towards developing PET.

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Elena Valassi Endocrinology/Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER, Unidad 747), IIB-Sant Pau, ISCIII and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain

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Natalia García-Giralt URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Jorge Malouf Mineral Metabolism Unit, Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain

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Iris Crespo Endocrinology/Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER, Unidad 747), IIB-Sant Pau, ISCIII and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain

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Jaume Llauger Radiology Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain

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Adolfo Díez-Pérez URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Susan M Webb Endocrinology/Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER, Unidad 747), IIB-Sant Pau, ISCIII and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain

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Background

Biochemical control of GH/IGF-I excess in acromegaly (ACRO) is associated with persistent impairment of trabecular microstructure leading to increased risk of vertebral fractures. Circulating miRNAs modulate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and may be potential biomarkers of osteoporosis.

Aims

Identify differentially expressed miRNAs in the serum of patients with controlled ACRO vs controls and correlate miRNA levels with both biochemical and structural bone parameters.

Patients and methods

Twenty-seven patients with controlled ACRO (11 males, 16 females; mean age, 48 ± 5 years; BMI, 28 ± 4 kg/m2) and 27 age-, gender- and BMI-matched controls were recruited. Areal BMD at lumbar spine and femur, and trabecular bone score were assessed; volumetric BMD was measured by quantitative computed tomography QCT-Pro (Mindways). Twenty miRNAs, chosen by their putative role in bone, were quantified in serum using real-time qPCR.

Results

In ACRO patients, miR-103a-3p and miR-191-5p were found overexpressed, whereas miR-660-5p was underexpressed (P < 0.001). miR-103a-3p levels were negatively associated with both trabecular vBMD at trochanter and serum osteoprotegerin concentrations (P < 0.05) and positively with vitamin D concentrations (P < 0.01) and total cross-sectional area of the femoral neck (P < 0.05). miR-660-5p levels were correlated with both trabecular vBMD at trochanter and OPG concentrations (P < 0.05), but were negatively associated with vitamin D levels (P < 0.05). A negative correlation between miR-103-a-3p and miR-660-5p was found in both groups (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Circulating miR-103a-3p and miR-660-5p are differentially expressed in controlled ACRO patients and associated with bone structural parameters. miRNAs may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of bone disease and could be used as biomarkers in ACRO patients.

Open access
Behnaz Abiri Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Majid Valizadeh Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Amirhossein Ramezani Ahmadi Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

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Shirin Amini Department of Nutrition, Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran

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Mohammad Nikoohemmat Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Faeze Abbaspour Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Farhad Hosseinpanah Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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Objectives

It has not been established whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with anthropometric state; therefore, this systematic review examined the relationship between serum vitamin D levels with anthropometrics and adiposity across different ages.

Methods

Studies that examined vitamin D deficiency with adiposity measures in different age groups were searched in the PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases until November 2023. Two investigators independently reviewed titles and abstracts, examined full-text articles, extracted data, and rated the quality in accordance with the Newcastle–Ottawa criteria.

Results

Seventy-two studies, with a total of 59,430 subjects, were included. Of these studies, 27 cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (with 25,615 participants) evaluated the possible link between 25(OH)D serum concentrations and anthropometric/adiposity indices in the pediatric population. Forty-two cross-sectional studies and two cohort investigations (with 33,815 participants) investigated the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and adiposity measures in adults and/or the elderly population. There is evidence supporting links between vitamin D deficiency and obesity, and revealed an inverse association between vitamin D and adiposity indicators, specifically in female subjects. However, the effects of several confounding factors should also be considered.

Conclusion

Most published studies, most of which were cross-sectional, reported a negative association between vitamin D and female adiposity indicators. Therefore, serum vitamin D levels should be monitored in overweight/obese individuals.

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Mieke Van Hemelrijck
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Thurkaa Shanmugalingam
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Cecilia Bosco
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Wahyu Wulaningsih
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Sabine Rohrmann Cancer Epidemiology Group, Division of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Division of Cancer Studies, King's College London, London, UK

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Background

Despite mounting evidence linking both calcium and IGF1, there is a lack of studies investigating any association between circulating levels of IGF1 and serum calcium.

Methods

Serum calcium, IGF1, and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) were measured for 5368 participants in NHANES III. We calculated multivariable-adjusted geometric means of serum concentrations of IGF1, IGFBP3, and IGF1/IGFBP3 by categories of calcium (lowest 5% (<1.16 mmol/l), mid 90%, and top 5% (≥1.31 mmol/l)). We also performed stratified analyses by sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, serum levels of vitamin D, and bone mineral density (BMD).

Results

Overall, we found that circulating calcium was positively associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3, but not their molar ratio (i.e., geometric mean of IGF1 by increasing calcium categories: 237.63, 246.51, and 264.22 ng/nl; P trend: 0.43; P first vs third category: 0.01). In particular, these associations were observed in women, people aged <60, non-Hispanic whites, those with vitamin D levels above the mean, and those with low BMD. In contrast, there was an inverse association with the molar ratio for those with BMI ≥30 kg/m2.

Conclusion

We found an overall positive association between circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3 and serum calcium. However, stratification by potential effect-modifiers did not support all suggested hypotheses. Our findings provide more insight into the interplay between calcium and IGF1, which in the future can be investigated in larger observational studies allowing for additional stratifications based on a combination of the different effect-modifiers investigated here.

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Jean-Philippe Bertocchio Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Physiologie, Paris, France
Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, INSERM, UMRS1138, Paris, France

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Natalie Grosset Hypoparathyroïdisme France, Annecy, France

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Lionel Groussin Department of Endocrinology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Cochin, Université de Paris, Paris, France

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Peter Kamenický Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm U1185, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service d’Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Métabolisme du Calcium et du Phosphate, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Fabrice Larceneux Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR 7088, DRM [Ermes], Paris, France

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Anne Lienhardt-Roussie CHU Dupuytren, Hôpital Mère Enfant, Endocrinologie Pédiatrique, Limoges, France

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Agnès Linglart Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm U1185, Physiologie et Physiopathologie Endocriniennes, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Service d’Endocrinologie et Diabète de l’Enfant, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore et Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Hôpital Bicêtre Paris Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

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Gérard Maruani Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Physiologie, Paris, France
Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Institut Necker-Enfants Malades, INSERM U1151 – CNRS UMR 8253, Paris, France

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Eric Mirallie Chirurgie Cancérologique, Digestive et Endocrine, Institut des Maladies de l’Appareil Digestif, Hôtel Dieu, CHU Nantes, France
Association Francophone de Chirurgie Endocrinienne (AFCE), France

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François Pattou Université de Lille, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur Lille, Inserm U1190, Lille, France

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Riyad N H Seervai Molecular & Cellular Biology Graduate Program, Medical Scientist Training Program, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA

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Coralie Sido Hypoparathyroïdisme France, Annecy, France

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Caroline Silve Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Cochin, Biochimie et Génétique Moléculaires, Paris, France
INSERM, U1169, Université Paris Sud, Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France

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Aurélie Vilfaillot Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Unité de Recherche Clinique, Paris, France
INSERM, U1418, CIC-EC, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

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Antoine Tabarin Service Endocrinologie Diabète et Nutrition, CHU de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, Pessac, France

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Marie-Christine Vantyghem CHU Lille, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Inserm U1190, EGID, Lille, France

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Pascal Houillier Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Physiologie, Paris, France
Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares du Calcium et du Phosphore Filière de Santé Maladies Rares OSCAR, Paris, France
Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, INSERM, UMRS1138, Paris, France
CNRS, ERL8228, Paris, France

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the investigators of the Épi-Hypo study
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Context

Recent guidelines have provided recommendations for the care of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism. Very little is known about actual physicians’ practices or their adherence to such guidelines.

Objective

To describe the physicians’ practice patterns and their compliance with international guidelines.

Design

The cohort studies included were Épi-Hypo (118 physicians and 107 patients, from September 2016 to December 2019) and ePatients (110 patients, November 2019).

Methods

Internet-based cohorts involving all settings at a nationwide level (France). Participants were (i) physicians treating patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism and patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism either participating in the (ii) Épi-Hypo study (Épi-Hypo 2019 patients), or (iii) Hypoparathyroidism France, the national representative association (ePatients).

Results

The physicians’ specialties were mainly endocrinology (61%), nephrology (28%), family medicine (2.5%), pediatrics (2.5%), rheumatology (2%), or miscellaneous (4%) and 45% were practicing in public universities. The median number of pharmaceutical drug classes prescribed was three per patient. The combination of active vitamin D and calcium salt was given to 59 and 58% of ePatients and Épi-Hypo 2019 patients, respectively. Eighty-five percent of ePatients and 87% of physicians reported monitoring plasma calcium concentrations at a steady state at least twice a year. In 32 and 26% of cases, respectively, ePatients and physicians reported being fully in accordance with international guidelines that recommend targeting symptoms, plasma calcium and phosphate values, and urine calcium excretion.

Conclusions

The care of patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism involves physicians with very different practices, so guidelines should include and target other specialists as well as endocrinologists. Full adherence to the guidelines is low in France.

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Mengting Yin Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Qianhui Liu Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Qingzhong Wang Jintang First People’s Hospital, West China Hospital Sichuan University Jingtang Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Yong He Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Haolan Song Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Xin Nie Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Guixing Li Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China

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Background

The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) remains a challenge because of increased asymptomatic PHPT or patients with normocalcaemic PHPT (NPHPT). In addition, some primary hospitals in China have no equipment to measure parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Therefore, an additional, simple, and inexpensive laboratory biochemical marker is urgently needed. The calcium/phosphate (Ca/P) ratio and chloride/phosphate (Cl/P) ratio have been proposed as suitable tools to diagnose PHPT in Europe; however, the Ca/P ratio has never been tested in China. We aimed to conduct a confirmatory study to explore the diagnostic performance of the Ca/P ratio for PHPT in China.

Methods

From January 2015 to December 2020, a total of 155 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy (143 PHPT patients and 12 NPHPT patients) and 153 controls were enrolled in this single-center , retrospective study. Serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D), chloride, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and creatinine levels were recorded for all the study participants. Pairwise comparisons were made between groups, and the diagnostic performance of the Ca/P ratio was determined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results

Patients with PHPT had a higher Ca/P ratio than controls (P < 0.001). A Ca/P ratio above 2.94 with a sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 98.7% can distinguish PHPT patients from healthy individuals. This index was positively correlated with the PTH level (r = 0.875, P < 0.001).

Conclusion

The Ca/P ratio is an ideal and inexpensive indicator for diagnosing PHPT in China when using a cut-off value of 2.94.

Open access
Elisabet Einarsdottir Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden

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Minna Pekkinen Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Kaarel Krjutškov Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Competence Centre on Health Technologies, Tartu, Estonia

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Shintaro Katayama Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden

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Juha Kere Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
School of Basic and Medical Biosciences, King’s College London, Guy’s Hospital, London, United Kingdom

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Outi Mäkitie Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Heli Viljakainen Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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Objective

The effect of vitamin D at the transcriptome level is poorly understood, and furthermore, it is unclear if it differs between obese and normal-weight subjects. The objective of the study was to explore the transcriptome effects of vitamin D supplementation.

Design and methods

We analysed peripheral blood gene expression using GlobinLock oligonucleotides followed by RNA sequencing in individuals participating in a 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled vitamin D intervention study. The study involved 18 obese and 18 normal-weight subjects (of which 20 males) with mean (±s.d.) age 20.4 (±2.5) years and BMIs 36 (±10) and 23 (±4) kg/m2, respectively. The supplemental daily vitamin D dose was 50 µg (2000 IU). Data were available at baseline, 6- and 12-week time points and comparisons were performed between the vitamin D and placebo groups separately in obese and normal-weight subjects.

Results

Significant transcriptomic changes were observed at 6 weeks, and only in the obese subjects: 1724 genes were significantly upregulated and 186 genes were downregulated in the vitamin D group compared with placebo. Further analyses showed several enriched gene categories connected to mitochondrial function and metabolism, and the most significantly enriched pathway was related to oxidative phosphorylation (adjusted P value 3.08 × 10−14). Taken together, our data suggest an effect of vitamin D supplementation on mitochondrial function in obese subjects.

Conclusions

Vitamin D supplementation affects gene expression in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. The altered genes are enriched in pathways related to mitochondrial function. The present study increases the understanding of the effects of vitamin D at the transcriptome level.

Open access
Kevin D Cashman Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

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Background

Internationally, concern has been repeatedly raised about the little notable progress in the collection, analysis and use of population micronutrient status and deficiency data globally. The need for representative status and intake data for vitamin D has been highlighted as a research priority for well over a decade.

Aim and methods

A narrative review which aims to provide a summary and assessment of vitamin D nutritional status data globally. This review divides the world into the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) major regions: the Americas, Europe, Oceania, Africa and Asia. Emphasis was placed on published data on the prevalence of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L (reflecting vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, respectively) as well as vitamin D intake, where possible from nationally representative surveys.

Results

Collating data from the limited number of available representative surveys from individual countries might suggest a relatively low overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in South America, Oceania and North America, whereas there is more moderate prevalence in Europe and Asia, and possibly Africa. Overall, the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D < 25/30 and <50 nmol/L ranges from ~5 to 18% and 24 to 49%, respectively, depending on FAO world region. Usual intakes of vitamin D can also vary by FAO world region, but in general, with a few exceptions, there are very high levels of inadequacy of vitamin D intake.

Conclusions

While the burden of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy varies by world regions and not just by UVB availability, the global burden overall translates into enormous numbers of individuals at risk.

Open access
Amarjit Saini Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Linda Björkhem-Bergman Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Departments of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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Johan Boström Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Mats Lilja Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Michael Melin Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Karl Olsson Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Lena Ekström Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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Peter Bergman Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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Mikael Altun Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Eric Rullman Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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Thomas Gustafsson Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

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The CC genotype of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism TaqI rs731236 has previously been associated with a higher risk of developing myopathy compared to TT carriers. However, the mechanistic role of this polymorphism in skeletal muscle is not well defined. The effects of vitamin D on patients genotyped for the VDR polymorphism TaqI rs731236, comparing CC and TT carriers were evaluated. Primary human myoblasts isolated from 4 CC carriers were compared with myoblasts isolated from four TT carriers and treated with vitamin D in vitro. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect on myoblast proliferation and differentiation was observed concurrent with modifications of key myogenic regulatory factors. RNA sequencing revealed a vitamin D dose–response gene signature enriched with a higher number of VDR-responsive elements (VDREs) per gene. Interestingly, the greater the expression of muscle differentiation markers in myoblasts, the more pronounced was the vitamin D-mediated response to suppress genes associated with myogenic fusion and myotube formation. This novel finding provides a mechanistic explanation to the inconsistency regarding previous reports of the role of vitamin D in myoblast differentiation. No effects in myoblast proliferation, differentiation or gene expression were related to CC vs TT carriers. Our findings suggest that the VDR polymorphism TaqI rs731236 comparing CC vs TT carriers did not influence the effects of vitamin D on primary human myoblasts and that vitamin D inhibits myoblast proliferation and differentiation through key regulators of cell cycle progression. Future studies need to employ strategies to identify the primary responses of vitamin D that drive the cellular response towards quiescence.

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Jennifer K Y Ko Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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Jinghua Shi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China

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Raymond H W Li Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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William S B Yeung Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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Ernest H Y Ng Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong, China

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Objective

Vitamin D receptors are present in the female reproductive tract. Studies on the association between serum vitamin D level and pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) showed inconsistent results and focused on a single fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycle. The objective of our study was to evaluate if serum vitamin D level before ovarian stimulation was associated with the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) of the first IVF cycle.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Methods

Women who underwent the first IVF cycle from 2012 to 2016 at a university-affiliated reproductive medicine center were included. Archived serum samples taken before ovarian stimulation were analyzed for 25(OH)D levels using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results

In total, 1113 had pregnancy outcome from the completed IVF cycle. The median age (25th–75th percentile) of the women was 36 (34–38) years and serum 25(OH)D level was 53.4 (41.9–66.6) nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (less than 50 nmol/L) was 42.2%. The CLBR in the vitamin D-deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group (43.9%, 208/474 vs 50.9%, 325/639, P  = 0.021, unadjusted), and after controlling for women’s age, BMI, antral follicle count, type and duration of infertility. There were no differences in the clinical/ongoing pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate in the fresh cycle between the vitamin D deficient and non-deficient groups.

Conclusions

Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in infertile women in subtropical Hong Kong. The CLBR of the first IVF cycle in the vitamin D-deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group.

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