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  • Abstract: Hyperparathyroidism x
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  • Abstract: Osteo* x
  • Abstract: Vitamin D x
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Hans Valdemar López Krabbe Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jørgen Holm Petersen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Section of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Louise Laub Asserhøj Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Fertility, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Trine Holm Johannsen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Peter Christiansen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Rikke Beck Jensen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Line Hartvig Cleemann Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Casper P Hagen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lærke Priskorn Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Niels Jørgensen Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Katharina M Main Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Anders Juul Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Lise Aksglaede Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
International Centre for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Adult patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are characterized by a highly variable phenotype, including tall stature, obesity, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, as well as an increased risk of developing insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Most adults need testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), whereas the use of TRT during puberty has been debated. In this retrospective, observational study, reproductive hormones and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition and bone mineral content were standardized to age-related standard deviation scores in 62 patients with KS aged 5.9–20.6 years. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and inhibin B were low, whereas luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were high in patients before TRT. Despite normal body mass index, body fat percentage and the ratio between android fat percentage and gynoid fat percentage were significantly higher in the entire group irrespective of treatment status. In patients evaluated before and during TRT, a tendency toward a more beneficial body composition with a significant reduction in the ratio between android fat percentage and gynoid fat percentage during TRT was found. Bone mineral content (BMC) did not differ from the reference, but BMC corrected for bone area was significantly lower when compared to the reference. This study confirms that patients with KS have an unfavorable body composition and an impaired bone mineral status already during childhood and adolescence. Systematic studies are needed to evaluate whether TRT during puberty will improve these parameters.

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Georgios Kontogeorgos Section for Geriatrics and Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Ostra, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Zoi Mamasoula Section for Geriatrics and Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Ostra, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Emily Krantz Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Penelope Trimpou Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Section for Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Kerstin Landin-Wilhelmsen Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Section for Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Christine M Laine Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Endocrine Out-Patient Clinic, Carlanderska Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Objective

Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a rare endocrine disorder in which insufficient levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) lead to low serum calcium (S-Ca) levels and muscular cramps. The aim was to study the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and comorbidities in patients with HypoPT compared with the general population and to estimate the need of treatment with PTH analog.

Design

Patients with HypoPT were identified and compared with a population sample. Short Form-36 (SF-36) and EuroQol-5 Dimensions Visual Analogue Scale questionnaires were used. All patients were followed up at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital outpatient clinic.

Methods

From the medical records between 2007 and 2020, 203 patients with HypoPT were identified and compared with a population sample (n = 414) from the World Health Organization’s (WHO) MONICA project, Gothenburg, Sweden. Of the 203 patients who met the diagnostic criteria, 164 were alive and 65% answered the HRQoL questionnaires.

Results

Patients with HypoPT, 80% postsurgical, and controls had similar age (60 years) and sex distribution (80% women). Patients had lower SF-36 summary component scores for physical (40.0 (interquartile range (IQR): 21) vs 51.2 (IQR: 14.6); P < 0.001) and mental (43.1 (IQR:17.4) vs 56.1(IQR:13.3); P < 0.001) well-being, irrespective of etiology or calcium levels. Individuals with HypoPT had more medications and lower renal function but not higher mortality than controls. Low HRQoL together with low calcium was present in 23% of individuals with HypoPT.

Conclusion

HRQoL was markedly lower in patients with HypoPT than in controls and independent of S-Ca levels. Treatment with PTH analog could be considered at least among patients with both low HRQoL and low calcium levels.

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Athanasios D Anastasilakis Department of Endocrinology, 424 General Military Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

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Marina Tsoli 1st Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Gregory Kaltsas 1st Propaedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Polyzois Makras Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, 251 Hellenic Air Force & VA General Hospital, Athens, Greece

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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of not well-defined etiology that involves immune cell activation and frequently affects the skeleton. Bone involvement in LCH usually presents in the form of osteolytic lesions along with low bone mineral density. Various molecules involved in bone metabolism are implicated in the pathogenesis of LCH or may be affected during the course of the disease, including interleukins (ILs), tumor necrosis factor α, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its soluble ligand RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), periostin and sclerostin. Among them IL-17A, periostin and RANKL have been proposed as potential serum biomarkers for LCH, particularly as the interaction between RANK, RANKL and OPG not only regulates bone homeostasis through its effects on the osteoclasts but also affects the activation and survival of immune cells. Significant changes in circulating and lesional RANKL levels have been observed in LCH patients irrespective of bone involvement. Standard LCH management includes local or systematic administration of corticosteroids and chemotherapy. Given the implication of RANK, RANKL and OPG in the pathogenesis of the disease and the osteolytic nature of bone lesions, agents aiming at inhibiting the RANKL pathway and/or osteoclastic activation, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, may have a role in the therapeutic approach of LCH although further clinical investigation is warranted.

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Veronica Kieffer
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Kate Davies University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Christine Gibson University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Morag Middleton University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Jean Munday University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Shashana Shalet University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Lisa Shepherd University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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Phillip Yeoh University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, NHS Grampian, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford Royal Hospitals Foundation Trust, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, The London Clinic, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE1 5WW, UK

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This competency framework was developed by a working group of endocrine specialist nurses with the support of the Society for Endocrinology to enhance the clinical care that adults with an endocrine disorder receive. Nurses should be able to demonstrate that they are functioning at an optimal level in order for patients to receive appropriate care. By formulating a competency framework from which an adult endocrine nurse specialist can work, it is envisaged that their development as professional practitioners can be enhanced. This is the second edition of the Competency Framework for Adult Endocrine Nursing. It introduces four new competencies on benign adrenal tumours, hypo- and hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. The authors and the Society for Endocrinology welcome constructive feedback on the document, both nationally and internationally, in anticipation that further developments and ideas can be incorporated into future versions.

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Heng Yeh Department of Emergency Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan
College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

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Hsuan Yeh College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan

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Chun-Cheng Chiang College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan

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Ju-Ching Yen College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

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I-Kuan Wang College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
Department of Nephrology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

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Shou-Hsuan Liu College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan

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Cheng-Chia Lee College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan

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Cheng-Hao Weng College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan

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Wen-Hung Huang College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan

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Ching-Wei Hsu College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan

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Tzung-Hai Yen College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan

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Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) occurs frequently in patients on maintenance dialysis receiving parathyroidectomy for refractory SHPT. However, there is scanty study investigating the clinical risk factors that predict postoperative HBS, and its outcome in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We conducted a single-center retrospective study to analyze 66 PD patients who had undergone parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2009 and 2019. The patients were stratified into two groups based on the presence (n=47) or absence (n=19) of HBS after parathyroidectomy. Subtotal parathyroidectomy was the most common surgery performed (74.2%), followed by total parathyroidectomy with autoimplantation (25.8%). Pathological examination of all surgical specimens revealed parathyroid hyperplasia (100%). Patients with HBS had lower levels of postoperative nadir corrected calcium, higher alkaline phosphate (ALP), and higher potassium levels compared with patients without HBS (all P<0.05). A multivariate logistic regression model confirmed that lower preoperative serum calcium level (OR 0.354, 95% CI 0.133–0.940, P=0.037), higher ALP (OR 1.026, 95% CI 1.008–1.044, P=0.004), and higher potassium level (OR 6.894, 95% CI 1.806–26.317, P=0.005) were associated with HBS after parathyroidectomy. Patients were followed for 58.2±30.8 months after the surgery. There was no significant difference between HBS and non-HBS groups in persistence (P=0.496) or recurrence (P=1.000) of hyperparathyroidism. The overall mortality rate was 10.6% with no significant difference found between both groups (P=0.099). We concluded that HBS is a common complication (71.2%) of parathyroidectomy for SHPT and should be managed appropriately.

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Zhiyan Yu Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Yueyue Wu Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Rui Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Yue Li Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Shufei Zang Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jun Liu Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Background

This study aimed to investigate the association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men over 50 years of age with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods

In this study, 1243 patients with T2DM (T2DM with coexistent NAFLD, n  = 760; T2DM with no NAFLD, n  = 483) were analysed. Non-invasive markers, NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4), were applied to evaluate NAFLD fibrosis risk.

Results

There was no significant difference in bone mineral density (BMD) between the NAFLD group and the non-NAFLD group or between males and females after adjusting for age, BMI and gender. In postmenopausal women, there was an increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio (OR): 4.41, 95% CI: 1.04–18.70, P = 0.039) in the FIB-4 high risk group compared to the low risk group. Similarly, in women with high risk NFS, there was an increased risk of osteoporosis (OR: 5.98, 95% CI: 1.40–25.60, P = 0.043) compared to the low risk group. Among men over 50 years old, there was no significant difference in bone mineral density between the NAFLD group and the non-NAFLD group and no significant difference between bone mineral density and incidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis among those with different NAFLD fibrosis risk.

Conclusion

There was a significant association of high risk for NAFLD liver fibrosis with osteoporosis in postmenopausal diabetic women but not men. In clinical practice, gender-specific evaluation of osteoporosis is needed in patients with T2DM and coexistent NAFLD.

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E Vignali Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Laboratory of Chemistry and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy

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F Cetani Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Laboratory of Chemistry and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy

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S Chiavistelli Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Laboratory of Chemistry and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy

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A Meola Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Laboratory of Chemistry and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy

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F Saponaro Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Laboratory of Chemistry and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy

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R Centoni Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Laboratory of Chemistry and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy

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L Cianferotti Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Laboratory of Chemistry and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy

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C Marcocci Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Laboratory of Chemistry and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Endocrine Unit 2, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Laboratory of Chemistry and Endocrinology, University Hospital of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy

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We investigated the prevalence of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NPHPT) in the adult population living in a village in Southern Italy. All residents in 2010 (n=2045) were invited by calls and 1046 individuals accepted to participate. Medical history, calcium intake, calcium, albumin, creatinine, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25OHD were evaluated. NPHPT was defined by normal albumin-adjusted serum calcium, elevated plasma PTH, and exclusion of common causes of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (serum 25OHD <30 ng/ml, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and thiazide diuretics use), overt gastrointestinal and metabolic bone diseases. Complete data were available for 685 of 1046 subjects. Twenty subjects did not meet the inclusion criteria and 341 could not be evaluated because of thawing of plasma samples. Classical PHPT was diagnosed in four women (0.58%). For diagnosing NPHPT the upper normal limit of PTH was established in the sample of the population (n=100) who had 25OHD ≥30 ng/ml and eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and was set at the mean+3s.d. Three males (0.44%) met the diagnostic criteria of NPHPT. These subjects were younger and with lower BMI than those with classical PHPT. Our data suggest, in line with previous studies, that NPHPT might be a distinct clinical entity, being either an early phenotype of asymptomatic PHPT or a distinct variant of it. However, we cannot exclude that NPHPT might also represent an early phase of non-classical SHPT, since other variables, in addition to those currently taken into account for the diagnosis of NPHPT, might cumulate in a normocalcemic subject to increase PTH secretion.

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Milou Cecilia Madsen Department of Internal Medicine and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Martin den Heijer Department of Internal Medicine and Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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Claudia Pees Walaeus Library, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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Nienke R Biermasz Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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Leontine E H Bakker Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

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Testosterone therapy is the cornerstone in the care of men with hypogonadism and transgender males. Gel and intramuscular injections are most frequently used and are registered and included in the international guidelines. The specific preparation should be selected according to the patient’s preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. As the majority of men with hypogonadism and transgender males require lifelong treatment with testosterone, it is important to utilize a regimen that is effective, safe, inexpensive, and convenient to use with optimal mimicking of the physiological situation. This systematic review reviews current literature on differences between the three most used testosterone preparations in adult men with hypogonadism and transgender males. Although it appeared hardly any comparative studies have been carried out, there are indications of differences between the preparations, for example, on the stability of testosterone levels, hematocrit, bone mineral density, and patient satisfaction. However, there are no studies on the effects of testosterone replacement on endpoints such as cardiovascular disease in relation to hematocrit or osteoporotic fractures in relation to bone mineral density. The effect of testosterone therapy on health-related quality of life is strongly underexposed in the reviewed studies, while this is a highly relevant outcome measure from a patient perspective. In conclusion, current recommendations on testosterone treatment appear to be based on data primarily from non-randomized clinical studies and observational studies. The availability of reliable comparative data between the different preparations will assist in the process of individual decision-making to choose the most suitable formula.

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Shuang Ye Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Yuanyuan Xu Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Jiehao Li Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Shuhui Zheng Research Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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Peng Sun Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China

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Tinghuai Wang Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

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The role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) signaling, including promotion of Ezrin phosphorylation (which could be activated by estrogen), has not yet been clearly identified in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of GPER and Ezrin in TNBC patients. Clinicopathologic features including age, menopausal status, tumor size, nuclear grade, lymph node metastasis, AJCC TNM stage, and ER, PR and HER-2 expression were evaluated from 249 TNBC cases. Immunohistochemical staining of GPER and Ezrin was performed on TNBC pathological sections. Kaplan–Meier analyses, as well as logistic regressive and Cox regression model tests were applied to evaluate the prognostic significance between different subgroups. Compared to the GPER-low group, the GPER-high group exhibited higher TNM staging (P = 0.021), more death (P < 0.001), relapse (P < 0.001) and distant events (P < 0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that GPER-high patients had a decreased OS (P < 0.001), PFS (P < 0.001), LRFS (P < 0.001) and DDFS (P < 0.001) than GPER-low patients. However, these differences in prognosis were not statistically significant in post-menopausal patients (OS, P = 0.8617; PFS, P = 0.1905; LRFS, P = 0.4378; DDFS, P = 0.2538). There was a significant positive correlation between GPER and Ezrin expression level (R = 0.508, P < 0.001) and the effect of Ezrin on survival prognosis corresponded with GPER. Moreover, a multivariable analysis confirmed that GPER and Ezrin level were both significantly associated with poor DDFS (HR: 0.346, 95% CI 0.182–0.658, P = 0.001; HR: 0.320, 95% CI 0.162–0.631, P = 0.001). Thus, overexpression of GPER and Ezrin may contribute to aggressive behavior and indicate unfavorable prognosis in TNBC; this may correspond to an individual’s estrogen levels.

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Kristin Ottarsdottir Primary Health Care, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Margareta Hellgren Primary Health Care, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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David Bock Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Anna G Nilsson Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Bledar Daka Primary Health Care, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Purpose

We aimed to investigate the association between SHBG and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-Ir) in men and women in a prospective observational study.

Methods

The Vara-Skövde cohort is a random population of 2816 participants living in southwestern Sweden, aged 30–74. It was recruited between 2002 and 2005, and followed up in 2012–2014. After excluding participants on insulin therapy or hormone replacement therapy, 1193 individuals (649 men, 544 women) were included in the present study. Fasting blood samples were collected at both visits and stored in biobank. All participants were physically examined by a trained nurse. SHBG was measured with immunoassay technique. Linear regressions were computed to investigate the association between SHBG and HOMA-Ir both in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, adjusting for confounding factors.

Results

The mean follow-up time was 9.7 ± 1.4 years. Concentrations of SHBG were significantly inversely associated with log transformed HOMA-Ir in all groups with estimated standardized slopes (95% CI): men: −0.20 (−0.3;−0.1), premenopausal women: −0.26 (−0.4;−0.2), postmenopausal women: −0.13 (−0.3;−0.0) at visit 1. At visit 2 the results were similar. When comparing the groups, a statistically significant difference was found between men and post-menopausal women (0.12 (0.0;0.2) P value = 0.04). In the fully adjusted model, SHBG at visit 1 was also associated with HOMA-Ir at visit 2, and the estimated slopes were −0.16 (−0.2;−0.1), −0.16 (−0.3;−0.1) and −0.07 (−0.2;0.0) for men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively.

Main conclusion

Levels of SHBG predicted the development of insulin resistance in both men and women, regardless of menopausal state.

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