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  • Abstract: Bone x
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  • Abstract: Hyperparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Hypoparathyroidism x
  • Abstract: Menopause x
  • Abstract: Osteo* x
  • Abstract: Vitamin D x
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Katherine U Gaynor Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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Irina V Grigorieva Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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Samantha M Mirczuk Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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Sian E Piret Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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Kreepa G Kooblall Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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Mark Stevenson Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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Karine Rizzoti The Francis Crick Institute, London, UK

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Michael R Bowl Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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M Andrew Nesbit Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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Paul T Christie Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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William D Fraser Norwich Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK

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Tertius Hough MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell Institute, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Oxfordshire, UK

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Michael P Whyte Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, St Louis, Missouri, USA

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Robin Lovell-Badge The Francis Crick Institute, London, UK

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Rajesh V Thakker Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

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Hypoparathyroidism is genetically heterogeneous and characterized by low plasma calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. X-linked hypoparathyroidism (XLHPT) in two American families is associated with interstitial deletion-insertions involving deletions of chromosome Xq27.1 downstream of SOX3 and insertions of predominantly non-coding DNA from chromosome 2p25.3. These could result in loss, gain, or movement of regulatory elements, which include ultraconserved element uc482, which could alter SOX3 expression. To investigate this, we analysed SOX3 expression in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from three affected males, three unaffected males, and four carrier females from one XLHPT family. SOX3 expression was similar in all individuals, indicating that the spatiotemporal effect of the interstitial deletion-insertion on SOX3 expression postulated to occur in developing parathyroids did not manifest in lymphoblastoids. Expression of SNTG2, which is duplicated and inserted into the X chromosome, and ATP11C, which is moved telomerically, were also similarly expressed in all individuals. Investigation of male hemizygous (Sox3 −/Y and uc482 −/Y) and female heterozygous (Sox3 +/ and uc482 +/ ) knockout mice, together with wild-type littermates (male Sox3 +/Y and uc482 +/Y, and female Sox3 +/+ and uc482 +/+), revealed Sox3 −/Y, Sox3 +/ , uc482 /Y, and uc482 +/ mice to have normal plasma biochemistry, compared to their respective wild-type littermates. When challenged with a low calcium diet, all mice had hypocalcaemia, and elevated plasma PTH concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activities, and Sox3 −/Y, Sox3 +/ , uc482 −/Y, and uc482 +/ mice had similar plasma biochemistry, compared to wild-type littermates. Thus, these results indicate that absence of Sox3 or uc482 does not cause hypoparathyroidism and that XLHPT likely reflects a more complex mechanism.

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Clarissa Souza Barthem Laboratório de Adaptações Metabólicas, Programa de Bioquímica e Biofísica Celular, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Camila Lüdke Rossetti Laboratório de Adaptações Metabólicas, Programa de Bioquímica e Biofísica Celular, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina Doris Rosenthal, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Denise P Carvalho Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina Doris Rosenthal, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Wagner Seixas da-Silva Laboratório de Adaptações Metabólicas, Programa de Bioquímica e Biofísica Celular, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Estradiol has been used to prevent metabolic diseases, bone loss and menopausal symptoms, even though it might raise the risk of cancer. Metformin is usually prescribed for type 2 diabetes mellitus and lowers food intake and body mass while improving insulin resistance and the lipid profile. Ovariectomized rats show increased body mass, insulin resistance and changes in the lipid profile. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate whether metformin could prevent the early metabolic dysfunction that occurs early after ovariectomy. Female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: SHAM-operated (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized + estradiol (OVX + E2) and ovariectomized + metformin (OVX + M). Treatment with metformin diminished approximately 50% of the mass gain observed in ovariectomized animals and reduced both the serum and hepatic triglyceride levels. The hepatic levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) decreased after OVX, and the expression of the inactive form of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was also reduced. Metformin was able to increase the levels of pAMPK in the liver of OVX animals, sustaining the balance between the inactive and total forms of ACC. Estradiol effects were similar to those of metformin but with different proportions. Our results suggest that metformin ameliorates the early alterations of metabolic parameters and rescues hepatic AMPK phosphorylation and ACC inactivation observed in ovariectomized rats.

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Marília D’Elboux Guimarães Brescia Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Karine Candido Rodrigues Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Endocrine Oncology Division, Institute of Cancer of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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André Fernandes d’Alessandro Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Wellington Alves Filho Department of Surgery, Walter Cantidio University Hospital, Federal University of Ceara School of Medicine (FAMED-UFC), Fortaleza, Brazil

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Willemijn Y van der Plas Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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Schelto Kruijff Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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Sergio Samir Arap Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Sergio Pereira de Almeida Toledo Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Fábio Luiz de Menezes Montenegro Parathyroid Unit – LIM-28, Laboratório de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Delmar Muniz Lourenço Jr Endocrine Genetics Unit (LIM-25), Endocrinology Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), Hospital das Clinicas (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Endocrine Oncology Division, Institute of Cancer of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP), Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Background

Potential influences of parathyroidectomy (PTx) on the quality of life (QoL) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT/MEN1) are unknown.

Method

Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire was prospectively applied to 30 HPT/MEN1 patients submitted to PTx (20, subtotal; 10, total with autograft) before, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Parameters that were analyzed included QoL, age, HPT-related symptoms, general pain, comorbidities, biochemical/hormonal response, PTx type and parathyroid volume.

Results

Asymptomatic patients were younger (30 vs 38 years; P = 0.04) and presented higher QoL scores than symptomatic ones: Physical Component Summary score (PCS) 92.5 vs 61.2, P = 0.0051; Mental Component Summary score (MCS) 82.0 vs 56.0, P = 0.04. In both groups, QoL remained stable 1 year after PTx, independently of the number of comorbidities. Preoperative general pain was negatively correlated with PCS (r = −0.60, P = 0.0004) and MCS (r = −0.57, P = 0.0009). Also, moderate/intense pain was progressively (6/12 months) more frequent in cases developing hypoparathyroidism. The PTx type and hypoparathyroidism did not affect the QoL at 12 months although remnant parathyroid tissue volume did have a positive correlation (P = 0.0490; r = 0.3625) to PCS 12 months after surgery. Patients with one to two comorbidities had as pre-PTx PCS (P = 0.0015) as 12 months and post-PTx PCS (P = 0.0031) and MCS (P = 0.0365) better than patients with three to four comorbidities.

Conclusion

A variable QoL profile was underscored in HPT/MEN1 reflecting multiple factors associated with this complex disorder as comorbidities, advanced age at PTx and presence of preoperative symptoms or of general pain perception. Our data encourage the early indication of PTx in HPT/MEN1 by providing known metabolic benefits to target organs and avoiding potential negative impact on QoL.

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Kaiyu Pan Department of Paediatrics, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Chengyue Zhang Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China

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Xiaocong Yao Department of Osteoporosis, The First People's Hospital of Xiaoshan District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Zhongxin Zhu Institute of Orthopaedics and Traumatology of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

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Aim

Ensuring adequate calcium (Ca) intake during childhood and adolescence is critical to acquire good peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis during older age. As one of the primary strategies to build and maintain healthy bones, we aimed to determine whether dietary Ca intake has an influence on bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study composed of 10,092 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Dietary Ca intake and total BMD were taken as independent and dependent variables, respectively. To evaluate the association between them, we conducted weighted multivariate linear regression models and smooth curve fittings.

Results

There was a significantly positive association between dietary Ca intake and total BMD. The strongest association was observed in 12–15 year old whites, 8–11 year old and 16–19 year old Mexican Americans, and 16–19 year old individuals from other race/ethnicity, in whom each quintile of Ca intake was increased. We also found that there were significant inflection points in females, blacks, and 12–15 year old adolescents group, which means that their total BMD would decrease when the dietary Ca intake was more than 2.6–2.8 g/d.

Conclusions

This cross-sectional study indicated that a considerable proportion of children and adolescents aged 8–19 years would attain greater total BMD if they increased their dietary Ca intake. However, higher dietary Ca intake (more than 2.6–2.8 g/d) is associated with lower total BMD in females, blacks, and 12–15 year old adolescents group.

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Henryk F Urbanski Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA

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Kevin Mueller Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA

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Cynthia L Bethea Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA

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Like women, old female rhesus macaques undergo menopause and show many of the same age-associated changes, including perturbed activity/rest cycles and altered circulating levels of many hormones. Previous studies showed that administration of an estrogen agonist increased activity in female monkeys, that hormone therapy (HT) increased activity in postmenopausal women and that obesity decreased activity in women. The present study sought to determine if postmenopausal activity and circulating hormone levels also respond to HT when monkeys are fed a high-fat, high-sugar Western style diet (WSD). Old female rhesus macaques were ovo-hysterectomized (OvH) to induce surgical menopause and fed a WSD for 2 years. Half of the animals received estradiol-17β (E), beginning immediately after OvH, while the other half received placebo. Animals in both groups showed an increase in body weight and a decrease in overall activity levels. These changes were associated with a rise in both daytime and nocturnal serum leptin concentrations, but there was no change in serum concentrations of either cortisol or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). These data suggest that 2 years of HT has little or no effect on locomotor activity or circadian hormone patterns in menopausal macaques fed an obesogenic diet.

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E M Winter Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Center for Bone Quality, Leiden, the Netherlands

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A Ireland Musculoskeletal Science and Sports Medicine Research Centre, Department of Life Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom

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N C Butterfield Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, Commonwealth Building, DuCane Road, London, United Kingdom

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M Haffner-Luntzer Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany

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M-N Horcajada Nestlé Research, Department of Musculoskeletal Health, Innovation EPFL Park, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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A G Veldhuis-Vlug Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Center for Bone Quality, Leiden, the Netherlands
Jan van Goyen Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

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L Oei Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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G Colaianni Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Bari, Italy

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N Bonnet Nestlé Research, Department of Musculoskeletal Health, Innovation EPFL Park, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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In this review we discuss skeletal adaptations to the demanding situation of pregnancy and lactation. Calcium demands are increased during pregnancy and lactation, and this is effectuated by a complex series of hormonal changes. The changes in bone structure at the tissue and whole bone level observed during pregnancy and lactation appear to largely recover over time. The magnitude of the changes observed during lactation may relate to the volume and duration of breastfeeding and return to regular menses. Studies examining long-term consequences of pregnancy and lactation suggest that there are small, site-specific benefits to bone density and that bone geometry may also be affected. Pregnancy- and lactation-induced osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare disease for which the pathophysiological mechanism is as yet incompletely known; here, we discuss and speculate on the possible roles of genetics, oxytocin, sympathetic tone and bone marrow fat. Finally, we discuss fracture healing during pregnancy and lactation and the effects of estrogen on this process.

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Leyre Lorente-Poch Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Sílvia Rifà-Terricabras Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Juan José Sancho Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Danilo Torselli-Valladares Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

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Sofia González-Ortiz Department of Radiology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain

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Antonio Sitges-Serra Endocrine Surgery Unit, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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Objective:

Permanent hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon disease resulting most frequently from neck surgery. It has been associated with visceral calcifications but few studies have specifically this in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications in patients with long-term post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism compared with a control population.

Design:

Case–control study.

Methods:

A cross-sectional review comparing 29 consecutive patients with permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism followed-up in a tertiary reference unit for Endocrine Surgery with a contemporary control group of 501 patients who had an emergency brain CT scan. Clinical variables and prevalence of basal ganglia and carotid artery calcifications were recorded.

Results:

From a cohort of 46 patients diagnosed with permanent hypoparathyroidism, 29 were included in the study. The mean duration of disease was 9.2 ± 7 years. Age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia were similarly distributed in case and control groups. The prevalence of carotid artery and basal ganglia calcifications was 4 and 20 times more frequent in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism, respectively. After propensity score matching of the 28 the female patients, 68 controls were matched for age and presence of cardiovascular factors. Cases showed a four-fold prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications, whereas that of carotid calcifications was similar between cases and controls.

Conclusion:

A high prevalence of basal ganglia calcifications was observed in patients with post-surgical permanent hypoparathyroidism. It remains unclear whether carotid artery calcification may also be increased.

Open access
Petar Milovanovic Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Laboratory for Anthropology and Skeletal Biology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Björn Busse Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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An increasing number of patients worldwide suffer from bone fractures that occur after low intensity trauma. Such fragility fractures are usually associated with advanced age and osteoporosis but also with long-term immobilization, corticosteroid therapy, diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine disorders. It is important to understand the skeletal origins of increased bone fragility in these conditions for preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat one of the most common health problems of the aged population. This review summarizes current knowledge pertaining to the phenomenon of micropetrosis (osteocyte lacunar mineralization). As an indicator of former osteocyte death, micropetrosis is more common in aged bone and osteoporotic bone. Considering that the number of mineralized osteocyte lacunae per bone area can distinguish healthy, untreated osteoporotic and bisphosphonate-treated osteoporotic patients, it could be regarded as a novel structural marker of impaired bone quality. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism of lacunar mineralization and to explore whether it could be an additional target for preventing or treating bone fragility related to aging and various endocrine diseases.

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Anping Su Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Yanping Gong Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Wenshuang Wu Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Rixiang Gong Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Zhihui Li Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

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Jingqiang Zhu
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Background

The effect of parathyroid autotransplantation on hypoparathyroidism is not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of autotransplantation of a parathyroid gland on the incidence of hypoparathyroidism and recovery of parathyroid function at 6 months after total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Methods

All patients with autotransplantation of a parathyroid gland (no inadvertent parathyroidectomy) (group A), in situ preservation of all parathyroid glands (no autotransplantation and inadvertent parathyroidectomy) (group B) or inadvertent removal of a parathyroid gland (no autotransplantation) (group C) who underwent first-time total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma between January 2013 and June 2016 were included retrospectively.

Results

Of the 702 patients, 383, 297 and 22 were respectively included in the groups A, B and C. The overall rates of transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism were 37.6% and 1.0%. The incidence of transient hypoparathyroidism was 43.9, 29.0 and 45.5% (A vs B, P = 0.000; A vs C, P = 1.000), and the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism was 1.0, 0.7 and 4.5% (P > 0.05). The recovery rates of serum parathyroid hormone levels were 71.4, 72.2 and 66.0% at 6-month follow-up (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Autotransplantation of a parathyroid gland does not affect the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism, but increases the risk of transient hypoparathyroidism when the rest of parathyroid glands are preserved in situ. At least 2 parathyroid glands should be preserved during total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection to prevent permanent hypoparathyroidism.

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Francesca Marini Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
F.I.R.M.O. Italian Foundation for the Research on Bone Diseases, Florence, Italy

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Francesca Giusti Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Teresa Iantomasi Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

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Federica Cioppi University Hospital of Florence, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi (AOUC), Florence, Italy

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Maria Luisa Brandi F.I.R.M.O. Italian Foundation for the Research on Bone Diseases, Florence, Italy

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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare, inherited cancer syndrome characterized by the development of multiple endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. MEN1 patients show a reduction of bone mass and a higher prevalence of early onset osteoporosis, compared to healthy population of the same age, gender, and ethnicity. During the monitoring and follow-up of MEN1 patients, the attention of clinicians is primarily focused on the diagnosis and therapy of tumors, while the assessment of bone health and mineral metabolism is, in many cases, marginally considered. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed bone and mineral metabolism features in a series of MEN1 patients from the MEN1 Florentine database. Biochemical markers of bone and mineral metabolism and densitometric parameters of bone mass were retrieved from the database and were analyzed based on age ranges and genders of patients and presence/absence of the three main MEN1-related endocrine tumor types. Our evaluation confirmed that patients with a MEN1 diagnosis have a high prevalence of earlyonset osteopenia and osteoporosis, in association with levels of serum and urinary markers of bone turnover higher than the normal reference values, regardless of their different MEN1 tumors. Fifty percent of patients younger than 26 years manifested osteopenia and 8.3% had osteoporosis, in at least one of the measured bone sites. These data suggest the importance of including biochemical and instrumental monitoring of bone metabolism and bone mass in the routine medical evaluation and follow-up of MEN1 patients and MEN1 carriers as important clinical aspects in the management of the syndrome.

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