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Open access

Muthiah Subramanian, Manu Kurian Baby, and Krishna G Seshadri

Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) have been shown to attenuate the effectiveness of radioiodine (radioiodine ablation, RIA) therapy in Graves' disease. We undertook a study to look at the impact of iodine uptakes on the outcome of 131I therapy. To determine the effect of prior ATD use on the duration of time to achieve cure in patients with high vs intermediate uptake Graves' disease who received a fixed dose (15 mCi) of 131I radioiodine. In a retrospective study of patients with Graves' disease, 475 patients who underwent RIA were followed-up on a two-monthly basis with thyroid function tests. Of the 123 patients with a documented preablation RAIU and consistent follow-up it was observed that 40 patients had an intermediate RAIU (10–30%) and 83 subjects had a distinctly increased uptake (>30%). Successful cure was defined as the elimination of thyrotoxicosis in the form of low free thyroxin and rising TSH levels. When a standard dose of 15 mCi 131I was administered, a cure rate of 93% was achieved. The median duration of time to cure (TC) was 129 days. Surprisingly, a direct proportional linear relationship (R 2=0.92) was established between time to cure and radioiodine uptake (TC> 3 0%=172days, TC10 3 0%=105 days, P<0.001). Patients who used ATD medications took a proportionately longer duration to achieve remission (TCNO ATD=102days, TCATD=253days, P<0.001). The effect of prior ATD therapy in delaying remission was amplified in the subset of patients with higher uptakes (TC> 3 0% + ATD=310days, TC> 3 0% + NO ATD=102days, P<0.001) compared to those with the intermediate uptakes (TC10 3 0% + ATD=126 days, TC10 3 0% + NO ATD=99 days, P<0.001). RIA, using a dose of 15 mCi achieved a high cure rate. Higher uptakes predicted longer time to achieve remission, with prior ATD use amplifying this effect.

Open access

Sahar Hossam El Hini, Yehia Zakaria Mahmoud, Ahmed Abdelfadel Saedii, Sayed Shehata Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Amin, Shereen Riad Mahmoud, and Ragaa Abdelshaheed Matta

Objective

Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTL) 3, 4 and 8 are upcoming cardiovascular biomarkers. Experimental studies showed that thyroid hormones altered their levels. We assessed ANGPTL3, 4 and 8 as predictors of cardiovascular functions among naïve subclinical and naïve overt hypothyroidism (SCH and OH) and altered ANGPTL levels with levothyroxine replacement (LT4) and their association with improved cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular function.

Design and methods

The study was a prospective follow-up study that assessed ANGPTL3, 4 and 8 levels, vascular status (flow-mediated dilation% of brachial artery (FMD%), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), aortic stiffness index (ASI)), left ventricle (LV) parameters (ejection fraction (EF), myocardial performance index (MPI), and LV mass), well-known cardiovascular risk factors and homeostatic model for the assessment of insulin resistance, at two time points, that is, among naïve SCH, naïve OH, and healthy subjects groups; and at 6 months after achieving the euthyroid state with LT4 by calculating their increased or decreased delta changes (∆↑ or ∆↓) in longitudinal arm among LT4-hypothyroid groups.

Results

Significantly elevated levels of ANGPTL3, 4 and 8 among hypothyroid groups than the healthy subjects were reduced with LT4. Multivariate analysis revealed ANGPTLs as independent predictors of cardiovascular functions and the contributors for ANGPTL level included ANGPTL3 and 4 for impaired FMD%, and ANGPTL8 for LV mass among naïve SCH; ANGPTL3 for EF% and ANGPTL8 for CIMT in naïve OH; ∆↓ANGPTL3 for ∆↓ASI meanwhile ∆↑freeT4 for ∆↓ANGPTL3, ∆↓fasting glucose, ∆↓triglyceride, and ∆↓thyroid peroxidase antibody for ∆↓ANGPTL4 among LT4-SCH. ∆↓ANGPTL4 for ∆↓MPI and ∆↓LV mass, meanwhile ∆↓TSH and ∆↓triglyceride for ∆↓ANGPTL3, ∆↑free T3 and ∆↓HOMA-IR for ∆↓ANGPTL4, and systolic blood pressure and waist circumference for ∆↓ANGPTL8 among LT4-OH.

Conclusion

Elevated ANGPTL3, 4 and 8 levels are differentially independent predictors of endothelial and cardiac function and are reduced with LT4 in SCH and OH.

Open access

Xiujuan Su, Yan Zhao, Zhijuan Cao, Yingying Yang, Tony Duan, and Jing Hua

Background

The effect of isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia (IMH) on pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes in human beings is still controversial.

Methods

This was a retrospective cohort study based on the electronic medical register system. The records of women with a singleton pregnancy who sought antenatal examination between January 2014 and December 2015 at Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital were extracted from the electronic medical records system. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibody (TPO-Ab) was measured before 20 gestational weeks, and a multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios of pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes between euthyroid women and those with isolated hypothyroxinaemia.

Results

A total of 8173 women were included in this study, of whom 342 (4.18%) were diagnosed with IMH. Regression analysis showed that IMH diagnosed in the second trimester (13–20 weeks) was associated with an increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.38–5.10) and placenta abruption (OR = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.07–12.41), but not with preterm delivery (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.50–2.40), small or large gestational age of infant (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.39–2.12; OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.72–1.86), macrosomia (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 0.95–3.07), gestational diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.86–2.15) and placenta previa (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 0.39–7.37).

Conclusion

IMH could be a risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

Open access

Ling Hu, Ting Li, Xiao-Ling Yin, and Yi Zou

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of thyroid nodules (TN) and metabolic syndrome (MS) and to analyze the correlation between TN and the components of MS.

Methods:

A total of 1526 subjects were divided into two groups: a TN group and a non-thyroid nodules (NTN) group. The height, weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose level, fasting plasma insulin level, serum lipid profile, uric acid level, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, free triiodothyronine (FT3) level, and free thyroxine (FT4) level of each patient were measured. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Fatty liver and TN were detected by color Doppler ultrasonography.

Results:

(i) The overall prevalence of TN was 39.5%; it was significantly higher in women than in men (P < 0.01) and progressively increased with age in both sexes. (ii) The overall prevalence of MS was 25.6%; it was significantly higher in men than in women (P < 0.01) and progressively increased with age in both sexes. (iii) FT3 was significantly lower in the TN group than in the NTN group (P < 0.01). (iv) BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR were higher in the TN group than in the NTN group (P < 0.05). (v) The existence of TN was significantly associated with overweight/obesity (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.024–1.089), and with insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.645–2.368), after adjusting for age and sex.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of thyroid nodules and metabolic syndrome in the Nanchang area increases with age, and overweight/obesity and IR in patients are associated with thyroid nodules.

Open access

Dimitra Argyro Vassiliadi, Ioannis Ilias, Maria Pratikaki, Edison Jahaj, Alice G Vassiliou, Maria Detsika, Kleio Ampelakiotou, Marina Koulenti, Konstantinos N Manolopoulos, Stamatis Tsipilis, Evdokia Gavrielatou, Aristidis Diamantopoulos, Alexandros Zacharis, Nicolaos Athanasiou, Stylianos Orfanos, Anastasia Kotanidou, Stylianos Tsagarakis, and Ioanna Dimopoulou

Objective

Following the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic, reports pointed on a high prevalence of thyroiditis-related thyrotoxicosis. Interpretation of thyroid tests during illness, however, is hampered by changes occurring in the context of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). In order to elucidate these findings, we studied thyroid function in carefully selected cohorts of COVID-19 positive and negative patients.

Design

Cohort observational study.

Methods

We measured TSH, FT4, T3 within 24 h of admission in 196 patients without thyroid disease and/or confounding medications. In this study, 102 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive; 41 admitted in the ICU, 46 in the ward and 15 outpatients. Controls consisted of 94 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients; 39 in the ICU and 55 in the ward. We designated the thyroid hormone patterns as consistent with NTIS, thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism.

Results

A NTIS pattern was encountered in 60% of ICU and 36% of ward patients, with similar frequencies between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients (46.0% vs 46.8%, P = NS). A thyrotoxicosis pattern was observed in 14.6% SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients vs 7.7% in ICU negative (P = NS) and, overall in 8.8% of SARS-CoV-2 positive vs 7.4% of negative patients. In these patients, thyroglobulin levels were similar to those with normal thyroid function or NTIS. The hypothyroidism pattern was rare.

Conclusions

NTIS pattern is common and relates to the severity of disease rather than SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thyrotoxicosis pattern is less frequently observed with similar frequency between patients with and without COVID-19. It is suggested that thyroid hormone monitoring in COVID-19 should not differ from other critically ill patients.

Open access

Christin Krause, Martina Grohs, Alexander T El Gammal, Stefan Wolter, Hendrik Lehnert, Oliver Mann, Jens Mittag, and Henriette Kirchner

Hepatic thyroid hormone signaling has an important role in the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). While the systemic levels of thyroid hormone might remain stable, there is evidence that the intracellular signaling machinery consisting of transporters, deiodinases and receptors could be altered in NASH. However, clinical material from human liver biopsies of individuals with NASH has not been studied to date. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed 85 liver biopsies from patients with different stages of NASH that underwent bariatric surgery. Using qPCR, we analyzed gene expression of thyroid hormone transporters NTCP (SLC10A1), MCT8 (SLC16A2) and OATP1C1 (SLCO1C1), thyroid hormone receptor α and β (THRA and THRB) and deiodinase type I, II and III (DIO1, DIO2, DIO3). The expression was correlated with serum TSH, triglyceride, HbA1c and NASH score and corrected for age or gender if required. While DIO2, DIO3 and SLCO1C1 were not expressed in human liver, we observed a significant negative correlation of THRB and DIO1 with age, and SLC16A2 with gender. THRB expression was also negatively associated with serum triglyceride levels and HbA1c. More importantly, its expression was inversely correlated with NASH score and further declined with age. Our data provide unique insight into the mRNA expression of thyroid hormone transporters, deiodinases and receptors in the human liver. The findings allow important conclusions on the intrahepatic mechanisms governing thyroid hormone action, indicating a possible tissue resistance to the circulating hormone in NASH, which becomes more prominent in advanced age.

Open access

Jan Calissendorff and Henrik Falhammar

Background

Graves’ disease is a common cause of hyperthyroidism. Three therapies have been used for decades: pharmacologic therapy, surgery and radioiodine. In case of adverse events, especially agranulocytosis or hepatotoxicity, pre-treatment with Lugol’s solution containing iodine/potassium iodide to induce euthyroidism before surgery could be advocated, but this has rarely been reported.

Methods

All patients hospitalised due to uncontrolled hyperthyroidism at the Karolinska University Hospital 2005–2015 and treated with Lugol’s solution were included. All electronic files were carefully reviewed manually, with focus on the cause of treatment and admission, demographic data, and effects of iodine on thyroid hormone levels and pulse frequency.

Results

Twenty-seven patients were included. Lugol’s solution had been chosen due to agranulocytosis in 9 (33%), hepatotoxicity in 2 (7%), other side effects in 11 (41%) and poor adherence to medication in 5 (19%). Levels of free T4, free T3 and heart rate decreased significantly after 5–9 days of iodine therapy (free T4 53–20 pmol/L, P = 0.0002; free T3 20–6.5 pmol/L, P = 0.04; heart rate 87–76 beats/min P = 0.0007), whereas TSH remained unchanged. Side effects were noted in 4 (15%) (rash n = 2, rash and vomiting n = 1, swelling of fingers n = 1). Thyroidectomy was performed in 26 patients (96%) and one was treated with radioiodine; all treatments were without serious complications.

Conclusion

Treatment of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism with Lugol’s solution before definitive treatment is safe and it decreases thyroid hormone levels and heart rate. Side effects were limited. Lugol’s solution could be recommended pre-operatively in Graves’ disease with failed medical treatment, especially if side effects to anti-thyroid drugs have occurred.

Open access

Yongping Liu, Shuo Wang, Qingling Guo, Yongze Li, Jing Qin, Na Zhao, Yushu Li, Zhongyan Shan, and Weiping Teng

Objective

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is characterized by elevated specific auto-antibodies, including TgAb and TPOAb. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the essential role of Th17 cells in HT. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Semaphorin 5A (Sema 5A) is involved in several autoimmune diseases through the regulation of immune cells. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of Sema 5A in HT.

Methods

We measured serum Sema 5A levels in HT (n = 92) and healthy controls (n = 111) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RNA levels of Sema 5A and their receptors (plexin-A1 and plexin-B3), as well as several cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17), were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 23 patients with HT and 31 controls. In addition, we investigated the relationship between serum Sema 5A and HT.

Results

Serum Sema 5A in HT increased significantly compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001). Moreover, serum Sema 5A levels were positively correlated with TgAb (r = 0.511, P < 0.001), TPOAb (r = 0.423, P < 0.001), TSH (r = 0.349, P < 0.001) and IL-17 mRNA expression (r = 0.442, P < 0.001). Increased Sema 5A RNA expression was observed (P = 0.041) in HT compared with controls. In receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, serum Sema 5A predicted HT with a sensitivity of 79.35% and specificity of 96.40%, and the area under the curve of the ROC curve was 0.836 (95% CI: 0.778–0.884, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

These data demonstrated elevated serum Sema 5A in HT patients for the first time. Serum Sema 5A levels were correlated with thyroid auto-antibodies and IL-17 mRNA expression. Sema 5A may be involved in immune response of HT patients.

Open access

Enrique Soto-Pedre, Paul J Newey, John S Bevan, and Graham P Leese

Purpose

High serum prolactin concentrations have been associated with adverse health outcomes in some but not all studies. This study aimed to examine the morbidity and all-cause mortality associated with hyperprolactinaemia.

Methods

A population-based matched cohort study in Tayside (Scotland, UK) from 1988 to 2014 was performed. Record-linkage technology was used to identify patients with hyperprolactinaemia that were compared to an age–sex-matched cohort of patients free of hyperprolactinaemia. The number of deaths and incident admissions with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer, breast cancer, bone fractures and infectious conditions were compared by the survival analysis.

Results

Patients with hyperprolactinaemia related to pituitary tumours had no increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, bone fractures, all-cause cancer or breast cancer. Whilst no increased mortality was observed in patients with pituitary microadenomas (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 0.79–3.44), other subgroups including those with pituitary macroadenomas and drug-induced and idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia demonstrated an increased risk of death. Individuals with drug-induced hyperprolactinaemia also demonstrated increased risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease and bone fracture. However, these increased risks were not associated with the degree of serum prolactin elevation (P trend > 0.3). No increased risk of cancer was observed in any subgroup.

Conclusions

No excess morbidity was observed in patients with raised prolactin due to pituitary tumours. Although the increased morbidity and mortality associated with defined patient subgroups are unlikely to be directly related to the elevation in serum prolactin, hyperprolactinaemia might act as a biomarker for the presence of some increased disease risk in these patients.

Open access

Sarah Byberg, Jesper Futtrup, Mikkel Andreassen, and Jesper Krogh

Objectives

Recent large cohort studies suggest an association between high plasma prolactin and cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this systematic review was to systematically assess the effect of reducing prolactin with dopamine agonist on established cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prolactinomas.

Design

Bibliographical search was done until February 2019 searching the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, WHO and LILAC. Eligible studies had to include participants with verified prolactinomas where metabolic variables were assessed before and after at least 2 weeks treatment with dopamine agonists.

Methods

Baseline data and outcomes were independently collected by two investigators. The study was registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42016046525).

Results

Fourteen observational studies enrolling 387 participants were included. The pooled standardized mean difference of the primary outcome revealed a reduction of BMI and weight of −0.21 (95% CI −0.37 to −0.05; P = 0.01; I 2 = 71%), after treatment. Subgroup analysis suggested that the reduction of weight was primarily driven by studies with high prolactin levels at baseline (P = 0.04). Secondary outcomes suggested a small decrease in waist circumference, a small-to-moderate decrease in triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, HOMA-IR, HbA1c and hsCRP, and a moderate decrease in LDL, total cholesterol and insulin.

Conclusion

This systematic review suggests a reduction of weight as well as an improved lipid profile and glucose tolerance after treatment with dopamine agonist in patients with prolactinomas. These data are based on low-quality evidence.