Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 238 items for

  • Abstract: ANS x
  • Abstract: Cushings x
  • Abstract: FSH x
  • Abstract: Growthhormone x
  • Abstract: HPA x
  • Abstract: Hyperpituitary x
  • Abstract: Hypopituitary x
  • Abstract: Hypothalamus x
  • Abstract: LH x
  • Abstract: Nervous x
  • Abstract: Neuro* x
  • Abstract: Oxytocin x
  • Abstract: Prolactin x
  • Abstract: TSH x
  • Abstract: Vasopressin x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Jeonghoon Ha, Jeongmin Lee, Kwanhoon Jo, Dong-Jun Lim, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, and Min-Hee Kim

Objective

To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in Korean adults and identify the risk factors for the occurrence of SCH by sex.

Design and methods

This study used data from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI), a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey, which comprises a health interview survey, a health examination survey and a nutrition survey. To examine SCH, the reference range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was defined using both the range provided by the test kit manufacturer (SCH-M) and a population-based range (SCH-P). We investigated the prevalence of SCH and its risk factors by sex using both reference ranges.

Results

The prevalence of SCH in Koreans according to SCH-M (0.35–5.5 µIU/mL) was 5.6%, and 3.3% with SCH-P (0.62–6.68 µIU/mL). For men, smoking significantly reduced the incidence of SCH, positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) significantly increased the risk of SCH, and in an adjusted model, the risk of SCH in all quartiles increased as the urine iodine creatinine ratio (UICR) quartile increased. For women, positive TPOAb was confirmed as a risk factor for SCH, as was the highest UICR quartile. Furthermore, the odds ratio for SCH in urban vs rural residence was 1.78.

Conclusions

The prevalence rates of SCH were similar to those reported in the literature and previously known risk factors were confirmed using both TSH reference ranges. The notable findings from this study are that the increased risk of SCH with increased iodine intake was more marked in men than in women and that residential area may be a risk factor for SCH in women.

Open access

Peter D Mark, Mikkel Andreassen, Claus L Petersen, Andreas Kjaer, and Jens Faber

Purpose

The aim of this study was to investigate structure and function of the heart in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) before and after obtaining euthyroidism by radioactive iodine treatment, using high precision and observer-independent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology.

Methods

Cardiac MRI was performed before and after euthyroidism was obtained by radioactive iodine treatment in 12 otherwise healthy patients (11 women and one man, mean age 59 years, range 44–71 years) with a nodular goiter and SH, and compared with eight healthy controls investigated at baseline. Cardiac data were expressed as an index, as per body surface area, except for heart rate (HR) and ejection fraction.

Results

Post-treatment cardiac MRI was performed in median 139 days after a normalized serum TSH value had been recorded. During treatment, serum TSH increased from (median (range)) 0.01 (0.01–0.09) to 0.88 (0.27–3.99) mU/l. Patients with untreated SH had increased resting HR (P<0.01) as well as cardiac index (cardiac output as per body surface area) (P<0.01) compared with controls. Obtaining euthyroidism resulted in a significant decrease in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of 2.7 g/m2 (P=0.034), in HR of 8 bpm (P=0.001), and in cardiac index of 0.24 l/min per m2 (P=0.017).

Conclusions

Normalization of thyroid function by radioactive iodine treatment of SH resulted in significant reductions in clinically important heart parameters such as LVMI, HR, and cardiac index. SH should be regarded as a condition in which aggressive treatment should be considered to protect cardiac function.

Open access

Lauren Bell, Ann Louise Hunter, Angelos Kyriacou, Annice Mukherjee, and Akheel A Syed

Background

TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for the autoimmunity of Graves’ disease (GD), which is commonly diagnosed clinically.

Aim

To evaluate the true positive (sensitivity) and true negative (specificity) rates of clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism compared to the TRAb test.

Setting

University teaching hospital in North West England.

Participants

Patients in the Endocrinology service who had a TRAb measurement between December 2009 and October 2015.

Methods

Electronic patient records were studied retrospectively for a pre-TRAb clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism. We examined descriptive statistics and binary classification tests; Fisher exact test was used to analyse contingency tables.

Results

We identified 316 patients with a mean age of 45 (range, 17–89) years; 247 (78%) were women. Compared to the TRAb result, clinical diagnosis had a sensitivity of 88%, specificity 66%, positive predictive value 72%, negative predictive value 84%, false negative rate 12%, false positive rate 34%, positive likelihood ratio 2.6 and negative likelihood ratio 0.2 (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions

Clinicians were liable to both over- and under-diagnose GD. The TRAb test can help reduce the number of incorrect or unknown diagnoses in the initial clinical assessment of patients presenting with hyperthyroidism.

Open access

Kazunori Morohoshi, Ryo Mochinaga, Tsukasa Watanabe, Ryojun Nakajima, and Toshio Harigaya

Many functions of vasoinhibins have been reported, but its receptor has not been clarified yet. Vasoinhibins, 11–18 kDa N-terminal fragments of prolactin, have anti-angiogenic activity and act on endothelial cells to induce apoptosis and to inhibit migration and proliferation, which are opposite to the effects of prolactin. Although vasoinhibins bind to the prolactin receptor, its binding activity is very weak compared to prolactin. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the binding activity between 16 kDa vasoinhibin and integrin beta1, alpha5 beta1, alpha1 beta1 and alphaV beta3 to identify a specific receptor for vasoinhibins. Moreover, we examined whether 16 kDa vasoinhibin induced apoptosis through integrin beta1 and alpha5 beta1 in endothelial cells. In this study, binding assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that 16 kDa vasoinhibin could bind strongly to integrin beta1 and alpha5 beta1. Moreover, neutralizing with integrin beta1 and alpha5 beta1 antibody could inhibit 16 kDa vasoinhibin-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. These findings suggest that vasoinhibins can act on endothelial cells through integrin alpha5 beta1 to induce apoptosis.

Open access

Ping Gu, Yuege Lin, Qi Wan, Dongming Su, and Qun Shu

Background

Increased insulin production and secretion by pancreatic β-cells are important for ensuring the high insulin demand during gestation. However, the underlying mechanism of β-cell adaptation during gestation or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unclear. Oxytocin is an important physiological hormone in gestation and delivery, and it also contributes to the maintenance of β-cell function. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxytocin in β-cell adaptation during pregnancy.

Methods

The relationship between the blood oxytocin level and pancreatic β-cell function in patients with GDM and healthy pregnant women was investigated. Gestating and non-gestating mice were used to evaluate the in vivo effect of oxytocin signal on β-cells during pregnancy. In vitro experiments were performed on INS-1 insulinoma cells.

Results

The blood oxytocin levels were lower in patients with GDM than in healthy pregnant women and were associated with impaired pancreatic β-cell function. Acute administration of oxytocin increased insulin secretion in both gestating and non-gestating mice. A 3-week oxytocin treatment promoted the proliferation of pancreatic β-cells and increased the β-cell mass in gestating but not non-gestating mice. Antagonism of oxytocin receptors by atosiban impaired insulin secretion and induced GDM in gestating but not non-gestating mice. Oxytocin enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and promoted cell proliferation in INS-1 cells.

Conclusions

These findings provide strong evidence that oxytocin is needed for β-cell adaptation during pregnancy to maintain β-cell function, and the lack of oxytocin could be associated with the risk of GDM.

Open access

Ulla Schmidt, Birte Nygaard, Ebbe Winther Jensen, Jan Kvetny, Anne Jarløv, and Jens Faber

Background

A recent randomized controlled trial suggests that hypothyroid subjects may find levothyroxine (l-T4) and levotriiodothyronine combination therapy to be superior to l-T4 monotherapy in terms of quality of life, suggesting that the brain registered increased T3 availability during the combination therapy.

Hypothesis

Peripheral tissue might also be stimulated during T4/T3 combination therapy compared with T4 monotherapy.

Methods

Serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), pro-collagen-1-N-terminal peptide (PINP), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (representing hepatocyte, osteoblast, and cardiomyocyte stimulation respectively) were measured in 26 hypothyroid subjects in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial, which compared the replacement therapy with T4/T3 in combination (50 μg T4 was substituted with 20 μg T3) to T4 alone (once daily regimens). This was performed to obtain unaltered serum TSH levels during the trial and between the two treatment groups. Blood sampling was performed 24 h after the last intake of thyroid hormone medication.

Results

TSH remained unaltered between the groups ((median) 0.83 vs 1.18 mU/l in T4/T3 combination and T4 monotherapy respectively; P=0.534). SHBG increased from (median) 75 nmol/l at baseline to 83 nmol/l in the T4/T3 group (P=0.015) but remained unaltered in the T4 group (67 nmol/l); thus, it was higher in the T4/T3 vs T4 group (P=0.041). PINP levels were higher in the T4/T3 therapy (48 vs 40 μg/l (P<0.001)). NT-proBNP did not differ between the groups.

Conclusions

T4/T3 combination therapy in hypothyroidism seems to have more metabolic effects than the T4 monotherapy.

Open access

Qing Zhu, Jianbin Su, Xueqin Wang, Mengjie Tang, Yingying Gao, and Dongmei Zhang

Graves’ disease (GD), an organ-specific autoimmune disease, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) exhibits immunological and metabolic activities involved in the induction and maintenance of immune responses. We attempted to evaluate the relationship between GD and serum TNF-α and its soluble receptors (sTNFRs), soluble TNF receptor 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2). A total of 72 GD patients and 72 matched healthy individuals were recruited for this study. Serum TNF-α and sTNFRs were measured by sandwich ELISA. In our study, no significant difference was observed in TNF-α, but sTNFRs were found to be significantly elevated in GD patients compared to healthy individuals. Serum sTNFR levels were positively correlated with free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4), and TNF-α was negatively correlated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the GD group. It was also shown that thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) was positively correlated with TNF-α and sTNFRs. Spearman’s correlation analysis showed that only sTNF-R1 was positively correlated with complement C3. Multiple linear regression analysis suggests that serum levels of sTNF-R1 and FT4 may play an important role in the serum level of FT3. According to the median value of FT3 level, GD patients were further divided into a high FT3 group and a low FT3 group. The serum levels of sTNF-R1 in the high FT3 GD group were significantly higher than those in the low FT3 GD group. In conclusion, sTNFRs may play an important role in anti-inflammatory and immune response in GD.

Open access

Yi Chen, Wen Zhang, Chi Chen, Yuying Wang, Ningjian Wang, and Yingli Lu

Objective

We aimed to evaluate whether thyroid hormones, autoimmune and thyroid homeostasis status were related to bone turnover in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the METAL study. In this study, 4209 participants (2059 men and 2150 postmenopausal women) with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Thyroid function, thyroid antibodies and three bone turnover markers (BTMs), including a large N-mid fragment of osteocalcin (N-MID osteocalcin), β-C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (β-CTX) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), were measured. Thyroid homeostasis parameters, including the sum activity of step-up deiodinases (SPINA-GD), thyroid secretory capacity (SPINA-GT), Jostel’s TSH index (TSHI) and the thyrotroph thyroid hormone resistance index (TTSI), were calculated. The associations of thyroid parameters with BTMs were analyzed using linear regression.

Results

Free and total triiodothyronine were positively associated with N-MID osteocalcin and P1NP in both sexes and positively associated with β-CTX in postmenopausal women. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was negatively associated with β-CTX in postmenopausal women, and free thyroxine was negatively associated with N-MID osteocalcin and P1NP in men. SPINA-GD was positively associated with N-MID osteocalcin and P1NP in both sexes. There was a positive relationship of SPINA-GT with β-CTX, a negative relationship of TTSI with β-CTX, and a negative relationship of TSHI with β-CTX and P1NP in postmenopausal women.

Conclusions

Among men and postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes, significant associations were observed between N-MID osteocalcin, β-CTX and P1NP with thyroid function and thyroid homeostasis. Further prospective studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship and underlying mechanism.

Open access

Dimitra Argyro Vassiliadi, Ioannis Ilias, Maria Pratikaki, Edison Jahaj, Alice G Vassiliou, Maria Detsika, Kleio Ampelakiotou, Marina Koulenti, Konstantinos N Manolopoulos, Stamatis Tsipilis, Evdokia Gavrielatou, Aristidis Diamantopoulos, Alexandros Zacharis, Nicolaos Athanasiou, Stylianos Orfanos, Anastasia Kotanidou, Stylianos Tsagarakis, and Ioanna Dimopoulou

Objective

Following the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic, reports pointed on a high prevalence of thyroiditis-related thyrotoxicosis. Interpretation of thyroid tests during illness, however, is hampered by changes occurring in the context of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). In order to elucidate these findings, we studied thyroid function in carefully selected cohorts of COVID-19 positive and negative patients.

Design

Cohort observational study.

Methods

We measured TSH, FT4, T3 within 24 h of admission in 196 patients without thyroid disease and/or confounding medications. In this study, 102 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive; 41 admitted in the ICU, 46 in the ward and 15 outpatients. Controls consisted of 94 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients; 39 in the ICU and 55 in the ward. We designated the thyroid hormone patterns as consistent with NTIS, thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism.

Results

A NTIS pattern was encountered in 60% of ICU and 36% of ward patients, with similar frequencies between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients (46.0% vs 46.8%, P = NS). A thyrotoxicosis pattern was observed in 14.6% SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients vs 7.7% in ICU negative (P = NS) and, overall in 8.8% of SARS-CoV-2 positive vs 7.4% of negative patients. In these patients, thyroglobulin levels were similar to those with normal thyroid function or NTIS. The hypothyroidism pattern was rare.

Conclusions

NTIS pattern is common and relates to the severity of disease rather than SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thyrotoxicosis pattern is less frequently observed with similar frequency between patients with and without COVID-19. It is suggested that thyroid hormone monitoring in COVID-19 should not differ from other critically ill patients.

Open access

Xiujuan Su, Yan Zhao, Zhijuan Cao, Yingying Yang, Tony Duan, and Jing Hua

Background

The effect of isolated maternal hypothyroxinaemia (IMH) on pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes in human beings is still controversial.

Methods

This was a retrospective cohort study based on the electronic medical register system. The records of women with a singleton pregnancy who sought antenatal examination between January 2014 and December 2015 at Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital were extracted from the electronic medical records system. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibody (TPO-Ab) was measured before 20 gestational weeks, and a multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios of pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes between euthyroid women and those with isolated hypothyroxinaemia.

Results

A total of 8173 women were included in this study, of whom 342 (4.18%) were diagnosed with IMH. Regression analysis showed that IMH diagnosed in the second trimester (13–20 weeks) was associated with an increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.38–5.10) and placenta abruption (OR = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.07–12.41), but not with preterm delivery (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.50–2.40), small or large gestational age of infant (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.39–2.12; OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.72–1.86), macrosomia (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 0.95–3.07), gestational diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 0.86–2.15) and placenta previa (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 0.39–7.37).

Conclusion

IMH could be a risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.