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Open access

Rui-yi Tang, Rong Chen, Miao Ma, Shou-qing Lin, Yi-wen Zhang, and Ya-ping Wang

Objective

To evaluate the clinical features of Chinese women with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH).

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic management and fertility outcomes of 138 women with IHH. All patients had been treated and followed up at an academic medical centre during 1990–2016.

Results

Among the 138 patients, 82 patients (59.4%) were diagnosed with normosmic IHH and 56 patients (40.6%) were diagnosed with Kallmann syndrome (KS). The patients with IHH experienced occasional menses (4.3%), spontaneous thelarche (45.7%) or spontaneous pubarche (50.7%). Women with thelarche had a higher percentage of pubarche (P< 0.001) and higher gonadotropin concentrations (P< 0.01). Olfactory bulb/sulci abnormalities were found during the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of all patients with KS. Most patients with IHH had osteopenia and low bone age. Among the 16 women who received gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment, ovulation induction or assisted reproductive technology, the clinical pregnancy rate was 81.3% and the live birth rate was 68.8%.

Conclusions

The present study revealed that the phenotypic spectrum of women with IHH is broader than typical primary amenorrhoea with no secondary sexual development, including occasional menses, spontaneous thelarche or pubarche. MRI of the olfactory system can facilitate the diagnosis of KS. Pregnancy can be achieved after receiving appropriate treatment.

Open access

Qiuli Liu, Gang Yuan, Dali Tong, Gaolei Liu, Yuting Yi, Jun Zhang, Yao Zhang, Lin-ang Wang, Luofu Wang, Dianzheng Zhang, Rongrong Chen, Yanfang Guan, Xin Yi, Weihua Lan, and Jun Jiang

Context

Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease manifests as a variety of benign and malignant neoplasms. Previous studies of VHL disease have documented several genotype–phenotype correlations; however, many such correlations are still unknown. Increased identification of new mutations and patients with previously described mutations will allow us to better understand how VHL mutations influence disease phenotypes.

Patients and design

A total of 45 individuals from five unrelated families were evaluated, of which 21 patients were either diagnosed with VHL disease or showed strong evidence related to this disease. We compared the patients’ gene sequencing results with their medical records including CT or MRI scans, eye examinations and laboratory/pathological examinations. Patients were also interviewed to obtain information regarding their family history.

Results

We identified four missense mutations: c.239G>T (p.Ser80Ile), linked with VHL Type 2B, was associated with renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and hemangioma in the cerebellum; c.232A>T (p.Asn78Tyr) manifested as RCC alone and likely caused VHL Type 1; c.500G>A (p.Arg167Gln) mutation was more likely to cause VHL Type 2 than Type 1 as it preferentially induced Pheo and HB in the retina, cerebellum and spinal cord; c.293A>G (p.Try98Cys) was associated with Pheo and thus likely induced VHL Type 2.

Conclusions

Characterizing VHL disease genotype–phenotype correlations can enhance the ability to predict the risk of individual patients developing different VHL-related phenotypes. Ultimately, such insight will improve the diagnostics, surveillance and treatment of VHL patients.

Precis

Four missense mutations in VHL have been identified in 21 individuals when five unrelated Chinese families with VHL disease were analyzed; VHL mutations are highly associated with unique disease phenotypes.

Open access

Xingrong Tan, Wenjing Hu, Shan Yang, Han Dai, Shangcheng Xu, Gangyi Yang, Ling Li, Shiguo Tang, and Yi Wang

Background

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating zinc α 2-glycoprotein (ZAG), irisin, betatrophin and adiponectin concentrations and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and to analyze the effects of blood glucose and insulin on these cytokine concentrations in vivo.

Methods

A total of 196 young women, including 78 healthy women and 118 women with MetS components, were recruited for this cross-sectional study. An oral glucose tolerance test and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) were performed in healthy subjects and women with MetS components. An ELISA kit was used to measure serum ZAG, irisin, betatrophin, and adiponectin levels, and their relationship with the MetS components was analyzed.

Results

In women with MetS components, circulating irisin and betatrophin levels were significantly higher than those in the healthy women ((207 (150–248) vs 178 (147–228); P < 0.05) for irisin; (0.51 (0.38–0.63) vs 0.38 (0.23–0.52); P < 0.001) for betatrophin), but circulating ZAG and adiponectin levels were significantly lower (39.8 (26.4–50.4) vs (46.7 (40.6–63.0); P < 0.001) for ZAG; (36.5 (22.0–47.6) vs 41.2 (35.7–54.7); P < 0.01) for adiponectin). FBG, WC, and triglyceride were significantly correlated with the circulating levels of these four cytokines (P < 0.001 or <0.05). All four cytokines were associated with MetS and its components. In response to increasing insulin levels, circulating ZAG concentrations were markedly increased in both healthy subjects and women with MetS components during the EHC. However, serum irisin, betatrophin, and adiponectin levels in both healthy subjects and women with MetS components were significantly reduced compared with baseline.

Conclusion

Serum ZAG, irisin, betatrophin and adiponectin were associated with MetS and might be biomarkers for screening MetS components.

Open access

Xiangyu Gao, Wanwan Sun, Yi Wang, Yawen Zhang, Rumei Li, Jinya Huang, and Yehong Yang

Background

Islet autoantibodies occur in type 2 diabetes. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive islet autoimmunity in community patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A total of 495 community patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited using the method of cluster sampling in this cross-sectional study. Three islet autoantibodies including glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA), insulin autoantibody (IAA) and islet cell antibody (ICA) were measured, and clinical characteristics involved in those individuals were evaluated.

Results

The positive rate of islet autoantibodies was 28.5% in total, while combinations of different autoantibodies were rarely seen. Compared with GADA-negative group, positive counterparts significantly tended to have lower levels of body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and urinary microalbumin (mALB) (P < 0.05). Adjusted for confounding factors, WHR, triglycerides (TG), and mALB seemed to be negative independent predictors of GADA (OR < 1, P < 0.05). Patients with positive IAA tended to receive insulin treatment (P < 0.0001). Besides, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CH), aspartate transaminase (AST), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were more likely to be higher in IAA positive subgroup in comparison with the negative counterparts. While after AST was adjusted by unconditional logistic regression analysis, history of insulin treatment, FBG, HDL-CH, and GGT were confirmed as positive predictors of IAA. Furthermore, in patients who were IAA positive, those treated with exogenous insulin tended to have longer duration of diabetes than non-insulin treatment counterparts (P < 0.0001). With regard to ICA, however, there were no significant differences between the two subgroups, except that serum level of AST/ALT seemed to be slightly different (P = 0.064).

Conclusion

These data suggested that type 2 diabetic community patients with positive GADA tended to be lean and were able to maintain normal lipid metabolism, while patients with positivity of IAA were frequently accompanied with insulin treatment and more closely associated with diabetic liver damage.

Open access

Yiqiang Huang, Lin-ang Wang, Qiubo Xie, Jian Pang, Luofu Wang, Yuting Yi, Jun Zhang, Yao Zhang, Rongrong Chen, Weihua Lan, Dianzheng Zhang, and Jun Jiang

Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PCC/PGL) are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic/parasympathetic ganglia, respectively. Of clinical relevance regarding diagnosis is the highly variable presentation of symptoms in PCC/PGL patients. To date, the clear-cut correlations between the genotypes and phenotypes of PCC/PGL have not been entirely established. In this study, we reviewed the medical records of PCC/PGL patients with pertinent clinical, laboratory and genetic information. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) performed on patient samples revealed specific germline mutations in the SDHB (succinate dehydrogenase complex iron-sulfur subunit B) and SDHD (succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D) genes and these mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing. Of the 119 patients, two were identified with SDHB mutation and one with SDHD mutation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used to analyze the expression of these mutated genes. The germline mutations identified in the SDH genes were c343C>T and c.541-542A>G in the SDHB gene and c.334-337delACTG in the SDHD gene. IHC staining of tumors from the c.343C>T and c.541-2A>G carriers showed positive expression of SDHB. Tumors from the c.334-337delACTG carrier showed no expression of SDHD and a weak diffused staining pattern for SDHB. We strongly recommend genetic testing for suspected PCC/PGL patients with a positive family history, early onset of age, erratic hypertension, recurrence or multiple tumor sites and loss of SDHB and/or SDHD expression. Tailored personal management should be conducted once a patient is confirmed as an SDHB and/or SDHD mutation carrier or diagnosed with PCC/PGL.

Open access

Jingya Zhou, Meng Zhang, Lin Lu, Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Weigang Yan, Haiyu Pang, Yi Wang, and Bing Xing

Objective

To investigate the validity of discharge ICD-10 codes in detecting the etiology of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS) in hospitalized patients.

Methods

We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of CS etiology-related ICD-10 codes or code combinations by comparing hospital discharge administrative data (DAD) with established diagnoses from medical records.

Results

Coding for patients with adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and those with bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) demonstrated disappointingly low sensitivity at 78.8% (95% CI: 70.1–85.6%) and 83.9% (95% CI: 65.5–93.9%), respectively. BMAH had the lowest PPV of 74.3% (95% CI: 56.4–86.9%). In confirmed ACA patients, the sensitivity for ACA code combinations was higher in patients initially admitted to the Department of Endocrinology before surgery than that in patients directly admitted to the Department of Urology (90.0 vs 73.1%, P = 0.033). The same phenomenon was observed in the PPV for the BMAH code (100.0 vs 60.9%, P = 0.012). Misinterpreted or confusing situations caused by coders (68.1%) and by the omission or denormalized documentation of symptomatic diagnosis by clinicians (26.1%) accounted for the main source of coding errors.

Conclusions

Hospital DAD is an effective data source for evaluating the etiology of CS but not ACA and BMAH. Improving surgeons’ documentation, especially in the delineation of symptomatic and locative diagnoses in discharge abstracts; department- or disease-specific training for coders and more multidisciplinary collaboration are ways to enhance the applicability of administrative data for CS etiologies.