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Rui-yi Tang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Rong Chen Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Miao Ma Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Shou-qing Lin Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Yi-wen Zhang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Ya-ping Wang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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as kg/m 2 . The Tanner score was used to assess baseline secondary sexual characteristics. Because our centre is a tertiary hospital, many patients were referred to our hospital after having received some hormone treatment. Information regarding

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Nandini Shankara Narayana Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Lam P Ly Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Veena Jayadev Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Carolyn Fennell Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Sasha Savkovic Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Ann J Conway Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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David J Handelsman Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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sexual characteristics in males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism . Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011 8 3471 – 3478 .

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Rafaella Sales de Freitas Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Thiago F A França Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Sabine Pompeia Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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involves neuroendocrine changes leading to maturation of the gonads, acceleration of growth in height, and development of secondary sexual characteristics. The kisspeptin peptides, produced by small groups of neurons in the hypothalamus, play a key role in

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M Jensterle Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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A Podbregar University Rehabilitation Institute Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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K Goricar University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry, Pharmacogenetics Laboratory, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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N Gregoric Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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A Janez Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

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been poor responders to LSM, by means of reversal of FH and WR. The primary outcome measures were changes in testosterone, sexual function and gonadotropins. The secondary outcomes were measures of obesity and metabolic profile. Materials and

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Yanfei Chen Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Mei Li Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Binrong Liao Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Jingzi Zhong Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Dan Lan Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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development of internal and external reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics before the age of 8 in girls and 9 in boys ( 1 ). In recent years, the age of puberty initiation has been declining all over the world, paralleled by the increasing

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Mei Li Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Yanfei Chen Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Binrong Liao Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Jing Tang Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Jingzi Zhong Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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Dan Lan Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

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luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Central precocious puberty (CPP) is a common pediatric endocrine disease due to premature reactivation of the HPG axis leading to the development of secondary sexual characteristics before the

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Anne Bachelot Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la croissance et Centre des Pathologies gynécologiques Rares, AP-HP, IE3M, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, ICAN, Paris, France
UPMC Univ, Paris, France

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Magaly Vialon Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la croissance et Centre des Pathologies gynécologiques Rares, AP-HP, IE3M, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, ICAN, Paris, France

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Amandine Baptiste AP-HP, Clinical Research Unit Paris Descartes Necker Cochin, Paris, France

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Isabelle Tejedor Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la croissance et Centre des Pathologies gynécologiques Rares, AP-HP, IE3M, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, ICAN, Paris, France

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Caroline Elie AP-HP, Clinical Research Unit Paris Descartes Necker Cochin, Paris, France

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Michel Polak Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Gynecology and Diabetology, Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance et Centre des pathologies gynécologiques Rares, Hôpital Universitaire Necker Enfants malades, Paris, France
Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France

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Philippe Touraine Department of Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la croissance et Centre des Pathologies gynécologiques Rares, AP-HP, IE3M, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, ICAN, Paris, France
UPMC Univ, Paris, France

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the CRMERC study group
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). Once growth is no longer a concern, a shift in treatment goals from optimization of growth and puberty to prevention of long-term adverse outcomes and optimization of fertility and sexual function is needed ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). The

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Shota Dzemaili University of Lausanne, Institute of Higher Education and Research in Healthcare, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Jitske Tiemensma University of California Merced, Psychological Science, Merced, CA, USA

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Richard Quinton Department of Endocrinology, Institute for Human Genetics, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom

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Nelly Pitteloud Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Service of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland

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Diane Morin University of Lausanne, Institute of Higher Education and Research in Healthcare, Lausanne, Switzerland
Faculty of Nursing Science, Laval University, Québec City, Canada

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Andrew A Dwyer University of Lausanne, Institute of Higher Education and Research in Healthcare, Lausanne, Switzerland
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Service of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland

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induce secondary sexual characteristics and menses ( 4 ). Combined gonadotropin therapy or physiologic treatment with pulsatile GnRH are equally effective for inducing fertility in the vast majority of cases ( 10 ). Compared to fertile counterparts

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María J Gómora Departamento de Embriología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Flavia Morales-Vásquez Departamento de Oncología Médica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Secretaría de Salud de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Enrique Pedernera Departamento de Embriología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Delia Perez-Montiel Departamento de Patología, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Secretaría de Salud de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Horacio López-Basave Departamento de Cirugía Oncológica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Secretaría de Salud de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Antonio R Villa División de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Azucena Hernández-Martínez Hospital Militar de Especialidades de la Mujer y Neonatología, Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional, CdMx, Mexico

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Esteban Mena Unidad de Apoyo Académico, Secretaría General, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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Carmen Mendez Departamento de Embriología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CdMx, Mexico

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that can increase the incidence as well as tumor aggressiveness ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). Sexual steroid hormones acting through their receptors regulate signaling pathways related to cell proliferation, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, apoptosis, cell

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Lachlan Angus Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Shalem Leemaqz Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia

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Olivia Ooi Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Pauline Cundill Equinox Gender Diverse Clinic, Thorne Harbour Health, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia

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Nicholas Silberstein Equinox Gender Diverse Clinic, Thorne Harbour Health, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia

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Peter Locke Equinox Gender Diverse Clinic, Thorne Harbour Health, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia

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Jeffrey D Zajac Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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Ada S Cheung Department of Medicine (Austin Health), The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia

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. Over 3–24 months, this leads to feminine physical characteristics including softening of skin, a decrease in facial and body hair growth, changes in body fat and muscle distribution, as well as breast development ( 4 ). Oestradiol improves psychological

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