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Raymond J Rodgers, Jodie C Avery, Vivienne M Moore, Michael J Davies, Ricardo Azziz, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Lisa J Moran, Sarah A Robertson, Nigel K Stepto, Robert J Norman, and Helena J Teede

associated risk of gestational diabetes (GDM), impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes (DM2), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidaemia and increased risk factors for both cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9

Open access

Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer, and Martina Rauner

Introduction The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide with diabetes-related complications accounting for up to 60–70% of health-care costs related to diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). Besides the well-known renal and cardiovascular

Open access

Clemens Kamrath, Alexander Eckert, Birgit Rami-Merhar, Sebastian Kummer, Martin Wabitsch, Katharina Laubner, Florian Kopp, Silvia Müther, Steffen Mühldorfer, and Reinhard W Holl

Introduction Diabetes mellitus due to insulin resistance is among the most prevalent endocrine disorders. It is commonly associated with obesity and lifestyle factors but may also occur in a very rare and severe form in patients with defects

Open access

Monia Cito, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti, and Valeria Sordi

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by insulin-producing β cell death caused by autoreactive T cells ( 1 ). T1D contributes to 10% of the total 422 million diabetes cases worldwide. Although T1D is no

Open access

Xun Gong, Lili You, Feng Li, Qingyu Chen, Chaogang Chen, Xiaoyun Zhang, Xiuwei Zhang, Wenting Xuan, Kan Sun, Guojuan Lao, Chuan Wang, Yan Li, Mingtong Xu, Meng Ren, and Li Yan

Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a global public health issue that causes huge economic and medical burdens worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes has increased over the past few decades, especially in Asian population ( 1 ). A national cross

Open access

Helga Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, and Peter Lommer Kristensen

(MSCC) and brain tumours. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known metabolic side effect from treatment with glucocorticoids. The diabetogenic effect is mainly a result of insulin resistance in muscle and fatty tissue, increased production of glucose from

Open access

Qian Deng, Yue Zhu, Mengmeng Zhang, Aihua Fei, Jiaqi Liang, Jinjin Zheng, Qingping Zhang, Tong Cheng, and Xia Ge

Introduction Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which was characterized by hyperglycemia ( 1 ), and the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in adults around the world has increased in recent decades. Based on the statistic from the

Open access

Mohamed Asrih, Flore Sinturel, Richard Dubos, Idris Guessous, Zoltan Pataky, Charna Dibner, François R Jornayvaz, and Karim Gariani

Introduction Obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide despite it being a major health concern ( 1 ). Excess weight represents a hazardous condition leading to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications, mainly cardiovascular

Open access

Metin Guclu, Sinem Kiyici, Zulfiye Gul, and Sinan Cavun

Introduction Excess weight and weight gain are significant problems in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 1 ). Weight reduction is a critical part of type 2 diabetic patients’ management to obtain better glycemic control

Open access

Cecília Cristelo, Alexandra Machado, Bruno Sarmento, and Francisco Miguel Gama

Type 1 diabetes Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of metabolic diseases characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia due to absent insulin secretion, insulin action or both ( 1 ). Diabetes is classically divided in type 1 and type 2 diabetes ( 2