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Emanuelle Nunes-Souza, Mônica Evelise Silveira, Monalisa Castilho Mendes, Seigo Nagashima, Caroline Busatta Vaz de Paula, Guilherme Guilherme Vieira Cavalcante da Silva, Giovanna Silva Barbosa, Julia Belgrowicz Martins, Lúcia de Noronha, Luana Lenzi, José Renato Sales Barbosa, Rayssa Danilow Fachin Donin, Juliana Ferreira de Moura, Gislaine Custódio, Cleber Machado-Souza, Enzo Lalli, and Bonald Cavalcante de Figueiredo

onset threshold (AOT), we investigated at which ages when at least >35% of the females present AOT, possible ZR cell number changes, and whether early adrenarche timing is different in Brazilian compared to European girls. AOT was selected based on

Open access

Rui-yi Tang, Rong Chen, Miao Ma, Shou-qing Lin, Yi-wen Zhang, and Ya-ping Wang

assessed the clinical characteristics of female patients with IHH. Shaw et al . ( 9 ) have summarized the characteristics of 248 Caucasian female patients with IHH, and Bhagavath et al . ( 10 ) have reported the characteristics of 57 Caucasian female

Open access

André Marques-Pinto and Davide Carvalho

primarily masculine in 20%, while 27% have both male and female abnormalities, and no evident cause is identified as for the remaining 15% (2) . Since the mid-20th century, numerous studies have reported an increasing incidence of human reproductive

Open access

Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

Introduction The proportion of women who engage in sports at all levels has increased dramatically over the past 50 years, as reflected in the rising proportion of female Olympic competitors. For example, at the summer Olympics in Munich in

Open access

Maki Igarashi, Tadayuki Ayabe, Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Keiko Matsubara, Hatoko Sasaki, Mayako Saito-Abe, Miori Sato, Nathan Mise, Akihiko Ikegami, Masayuki Shimono, Reiko Suga, Shouichi Ohga, Masafumi Sanefuji, Masako Oda, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Takehiro Michikawa, Shin Yamazaki, Shoji Nakayama, Yukihiro Ohya, and Maki Fukami

average age of adrenarche in the East Asian population is 7.7 years ( 3 ). Nevertheless, we found a significant difference in serum E 2 levels between boys and girls. This sexual dimorphism in circulating E 2 levels cannot be ascribed to the female

Open access

Anastasia K Armeni, Konstantinos Assimakopoulos, Dimitra Marioli, Vassiliki Koika, Euthychia Michaelidou, Niki Mourtzi, Gregoris Iconomou, and Neoklis A Georgopoulos

Introduction Over the past decades, research attention has been increasingly paid to the examination of the neurobio­logical component of sexual function. Female sexual desire and arousal have been shown to have a heritable component of

Open access

Shiori Minabe, Kinuyo Iwata, Youki Watanabe, Hirotaka Ishii, and Hitoshi Ozawa

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/gonadotropin pulse generator regulating gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in male and female mammals ( 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 ). Environmental stresses during development periods such as prenatal androgen excess ( 28

Open access

Carlo Cinque, Manuela Zinni, Anna Rita Zuena, Chiara Giuli, Sebastiano G Alemà, Assia Catalani, Paola Casolini, and Roberto Cozzolino

faecal sampling method involving short time handling, for steroid hormone assessment in male and female Wistar rats housed in standard social condition. We focused our research on faecal corticosterone metabolite measurements. We utilised a commercial

Open access

Ditte Sofie Dahl Sørensen, Jesper Krogh, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, and Mikkel Andreassen

prevalence of 1:200 to 1:1000 ( 4 ), and is typically diagnosed during workup of early puberty or due to symptoms of mild hyperandrogenism including hirsutism and acne in females ( 5 ). The goal of treatment is first, to replace deficient hormones, and

Open access

Frederic Schrøder Arendrup, Severine Mazaud-Guittot, Bernard Jégou, and David Møbjerg Kristensen

addressing comparative questions in females have, however, been largely lacking. To our knowledge, only one mouse study published in 1992 addresses this issue, showing that pre­natal exposure to a high dose of APAP (1430 mg/kg/day) administrated in the diet