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Florian Schederecker, Alexander Cecil, Cornelia Prehn, Jana Nano, Wolfgang Koenig, Jerzy Adamski, Tanja Zeller, Annette Peters, and Barbara Thorand

Introduction SHBG and sex hormones (e.g. androgens) have been shown to have deleterious or protective health effects, in particular in advanced age, and may account for some of the sex differences observed in cardiometabolic diseases and

Open access

Paal Methlie, Steinar Hustad, Ralf Kellman, Bjørg Almås, Martina M Erichsen, Eystein S Husebye, and Kristian Løvås

Introduction Glucocorticoid and androgen hormone measurements play a decisive role in the diagnosis and management of many disorders of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and gonads. Examples include Addison's disease (AD), Cushing

Open access

I Savchuk, M L Morvan, J P Antignac, K Gemzell-Danielsson, B Le Bizec, O Söder, and K Svechnikov

parallel, differentiation of the female and male external genitalia begins at GW7 and is completed by GW10, during which period, an overabundance of androgens can lead to abnormal male-directed development referred to as virilization ( 3 ). Deficient

Open access

Alessandra Gambineri and Carla Pelusi

tissues, particularly on adipose tissue. The sexual dimorphism of androgens in the pathophysiology of T2DM is emphasized. Sex hormone differences between the sexes Males and females produce the same steroid hormones in a similar way. Regarding

Open access

Brenda Anguiano, Carlos Montes de Oca, Evangelina Delgado-González, and Carmen Aceves

. However, the thyroid-prostate relationship has been poorly studied in the fields of endocrinology or cancer. This can be explained by the fact that thyroid function in non-metabolic tissues had been underestimated for a long time. Androgens and not THs are

Open access

Lachlan Angus, Shalem Leemaqz, Olivia Ooi, Pauline Cundill, Nicholas Silberstein, Peter Locke, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Ada S Cheung

individuals will require treatment with an additional anti-androgen drug. Anti-androgens such as cyproterone acetate or spironolactone are commonly added to oestradiol, lowering or blocking the effects of testosterone to aid development of feminising physical

Open access

Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Cinthia Marenza Ormond, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Nayara de Souza Santos, Camila Regis Banhara, and Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto

Introduction After standardization of the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) the hyperandrogenemic phenotype has been found in nearly 80% of patients ( 1 , 2 ). These hyperandrogenemic patients may have their androgen

Open access

Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop-Schmenn, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse, and Paul-Martin Holterhus

Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous syndrome that is characterized by features of anovulation (amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea) combined with symptoms of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne and alopecia) ( 1 ). The

Open access

Sarantis Livadas, Christina Bothou, Justyna Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Ralitsa Robeva, Andromahi Vryonidou, Jelica Bjekic Macut, Ioannis Androulakis, Milica Opalic, Zadalla Mouslech, Andrej Milewicz, Alessandra Gambineri, Dimitrios Panidis, and Djuro Macut

studies suggests that there is no inherent T2DM risk in PCOS and that, instead, it is a result of either increased BMI, of androgens, and/or of low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) values ( 10 ). However, PCOS constitutes a polygenic trait and the

Open access

Kristin Ottarsdottir, Anna G Nilsson, Margareta Hellgren, Ulf Lindblad, and Bledar Daka

– 503 . ( ) 2 Morford J Mauvais-Jarvis F. Sex differences in the effects of androgens acting in the central nervous system on metabolism . Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 2016 18 415 – 424 . 3 Mah