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Florian Schederecker, Alexander Cecil, Cornelia Prehn, Jana Nano, Wolfgang Koenig, Jerzy Adamski, Tanja Zeller, Annette Peters, and Barbara Thorand

Introduction SHBG and sex hormones (e.g. androgens) have been shown to have deleterious or protective health effects, in particular in advanced age, and may account for some of the sex differences observed in cardiometabolic diseases and

Open access

Paal Methlie, Steinar Hustad, Ralf Kellman, Bjørg Almås, Martina M Erichsen, Eystein S Husebye, and Kristian Løvås

Introduction Glucocorticoid and androgen hormone measurements play a decisive role in the diagnosis and management of many disorders of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and gonads. Examples include Addison's disease (AD), Cushing

Open access

I Savchuk, M L Morvan, J P Antignac, K Gemzell-Danielsson, B Le Bizec, O Söder, and K Svechnikov

parallel, differentiation of the female and male external genitalia begins at GW7 and is completed by GW10, during which period, an overabundance of androgens can lead to abnormal male-directed development referred to as virilization ( 3 ). Deficient

Open access

Alessandra Gambineri and Carla Pelusi

tissues, particularly on adipose tissue. The sexual dimorphism of androgens in the pathophysiology of T2DM is emphasized. Sex hormone differences between the sexes Males and females produce the same steroid hormones in a similar way. Regarding

Open access

Lachlan Angus, Shalem Leemaqz, Olivia Ooi, Pauline Cundill, Nicholas Silberstein, Peter Locke, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Ada S Cheung

individuals will require treatment with an additional anti-androgen drug. Anti-androgens such as cyproterone acetate or spironolactone are commonly added to oestradiol, lowering or blocking the effects of testosterone to aid development of feminising physical

Open access

Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Cinthia Marenza Ormond, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Nayara de Souza Santos, Camila Regis Banhara, and Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto

Introduction After standardization of the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) the hyperandrogenemic phenotype has been found in nearly 80% of patients ( 1 , 2 ). These hyperandrogenemic patients may have their androgen

Open access

Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop-Schmenn, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse, and Paul-Martin Holterhus

Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous syndrome that is characterized by features of anovulation (amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea) combined with symptoms of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne and alopecia) ( 1 ). The

Open access

Kristin Ottarsdottir, Anna G Nilsson, Margareta Hellgren, Ulf Lindblad, and Bledar Daka

– 503 . ( ) 2 Morford J Mauvais-Jarvis F. Sex differences in the effects of androgens acting in the central nervous system on metabolism . Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 2016 18 415 – 424 . 3 Mah

Open access

Emma Jernberg, Anders Bergh, and Pernilla Wikström

Introduction Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common forms of cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men worldwide ( 1 ). Androgens regulate normal and malignant prostate tissue growth via activation of androgen receptor

Open access

Christian Trummer, Stefan Pilz, Verena Schwetz, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, and Elisabeth Lerchbaum

outcomes, several lines of evidence suggest that low testosterone levels are associated with adverse events including higher cardiovascular and all-cause mortality ( 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ). In this context, it should be noted that androgen and vitamin D