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Open access

B Fabre, G Maccallini, A Oneto, D Gonzalez, V Hirschler, C Aranda, and G Berg

/ml, the use of this assay would be unuseful in OGTT or postprandial settings. Although fasting serum insulin itself remains controversial as an indicator of insulin resistance, indices based on both fasting glucose and insulin (e.g. HOMA and QUICKI) may

Open access

Lina Susana Silva-Bermudez, Freddy Jk Toloza, Maria Camila Perez-Matos, Russell J de Souza, Laura Banfield, Andrea Vargas-Villanueva, and Carlos O Mendivil

Objective: To estimate the effect of oral contraceptives (OC) containing different progestins on parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Patients and Methods: Premenopausal women aged 18 or older, who received oral contraceptives containing chlormadinone, cyproterone, drospirenone, levonorgestrel, desogestrel, dienogest, gestodene or norgestimate, for at least 3 months. Outcome variables were changes in plasma lipids, body-mass index (BMI), insulin resistance and plasma glucose. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for randomized trials and estimated the pooled within-group change in each outcome variable using a random effects model. We performed subgroup analyses by study duration (<12 months versus ˃=12 months) and polycystic ovary syndrome status.

Results: Eighty-two clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All progestins (except dienogest) increased plasma TG, ranging from 12.1 mg/dL for levonorgestrel (p<0.001) to 35.1 mg/dL for chlormadinone (p<0.001). Most progestins also increased HDLc, with the largest effect observed for chlormadinone (+9.6 mg/dL, p<0.001) and drospirenone (+7.4 mg/dL, p<0.001). Meanwhile, levonorgestrel decreased HDLc by 4.4 mg/dL (p<0.001). Levonorgestrel (+6.8 mg/dL, p<0.001) and norgestimate (+11.5 mg/dL, p=0.003) increased LDLc, while dienogest decreased it (-7.7 mg/dL, p=0.04). Cyproterone slightly reduced plasma glucose. None of the progestins affected BMI or HOMA-IR. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by PCOS or study duration.

Conclusion: Most progestins increase both TG and HDLc, their effect on LDLc varies widely. OC have minor or no effects on BMI, HOMA-IR and glycemia. The antiandrogen progestins dienogest and cyproterone displayed the most favorable metabolic profile, while levonorgestrel displayed the least favorable.

Open access

Riying Liang, Meijun Wang, Chang Fu, Hua Liang, Hongrong Deng, Ying Tan, Fen Xu, and Mengyin Cai

Background: Obesity is associated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Emerging evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist could reduce renal damage and albuminuria. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was considered as a crucial regulator in metabolism-related kidney disease. Herein, the role of SIRT1 in liraglutide-ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced kidney injury was illustrated.

Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD for 20 weeks to induce kidney injury that was then treated with liraglutide for 8 weeks to estimate its protective effect on the kidney. Also, the mechanism of the drug in SV40 MES 13 (SV40) mouse mesangial cells was elucidated.

Results: Liraglutide treatment ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including hyperglycemia, increasing body weight, and insulin resistance. In addition, kidney weight, urine albumin-to-creatinine, and kidney morphological changes such as vacuolated tubules, glomerulomegaly, thickened glomerular basement membrane, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were also significantly ameliorated. Furthermore, apoptotic cells and apoptosis markers were downregulated in the kidney of liraglutide-treated mice. In addition, the expression of SIRT1 protein was upregulated, whereas thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), which serves as a mediator of oxidative stress and apoptosis in metabolism disease, was downregulated by liraglutide. In SV40 cells, the effect of liraglutide on reversing the upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 induced by high glucose (30 mM) was hampered when SIRT1 was knocked down; also, the downregulation of TXNIP by liraglutide was blocked.

Conclusions: Liraglutide might have a beneficial effect on metabolism-related kidney damage by inhibiting apoptosis via activation of SIRT1 and suppression of TXNIP pathway.

Open access

Yusaku Mori, Eunhyoung Ko, Rudolf Furrer, Linda C Qu, Stuart C Wiber, I George Fantus, Mario Thevis, Alan Medline, and Adria Giacca

-known metabolic actions ( 1 ). Epidemiological studies showed that, in patients with type 2 diabetes and obese people with insulin resistance, endogenous hyperinsulinaemia is associated with increased risk for several types of cancer including breast cancer ( 2

Open access

Tao Yuan, Lanping Jiang, Chen Chen, Xiaoyan Peng, Min Nie, Xuemei Li, Xiaoping Xing, Xuewang Li, and Limeng Chen

sensitivity: (1) the OGTT insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda and DeFronzo (IS OGTT ) ( 8 ); (2) the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) model and (3) the homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The IS OGTT model

Open access

Giorgio Bedogni, Andrea Mari, Alessandra De Col, Sofia Tamini, Amalia Gastaldelli, and Alessandro Sartorio

Introduction The prevalence of childhood type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasing worldwide ( 1 ). T2DM is characterized by visceral obesity, insulin resistance and defective β-cell function. In children and adolescents, glucose

Open access

Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska, Agnieszka Nikołajuk, Magdalena Stefanowicz, Natalia Matulewicz, Irina Kowalska, and Marek Strączkowski

observed in different populations ( 8 , 11 , 13 ). Systemic chemerin levels were also found to be associated with markers of fatty liver disease ( 12 ). The main pathophysiological factor of obesity-related metabolic complications is insulin resistance

Open access

P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, N Kleefstra, H J G Bilo, and H J Arnqvist

-dependent diabetic patients compared to that in healthy subjects . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1995 80 2646 – 2652 . ( doi:10.1210/jc.80.9.2646 ). 27 Brismar K & Lewitt MS. The IGF and IGFBP system in insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. In

Open access

Antonia Ertelt, Ann-Kristin Barton, Robert R Schmitz, and Heidrun Gehlen

Federation (IDF), the waist circumference has to be measured at ≥80 cm in women and ≥94 cm in men ( http://www.idf.org , 09/08/2011). Mesenteric and omental fat is of greater importance in the development of insulin resistance, because their fatty acids and

Open access

Xuhua Mao, Hucheng Chen, Junmin Tang, Liangliang Wang, and Tingting Shu

Introduction Type 2 diabetes arises when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin to cope with the metabolic demand because of acquired insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction ( 1 ). Inhibition of insulin synthesis plays an