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Nese Cinar and Alper Gurlek

endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine hormones; cytokines; and growth factors which influence local adipose tissue and different organs/tissues. These include CNS, liver, pancreas, and the skeletal muscles. Leptin, adiponectin (ADP), vaspin, visfatin

Open access

Aldo Bonaventura, Fabrizio Montecucco and Franco Dallegri

conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, renal and liver disease, and dementia (63) . A report of a workgroup of the ADA and the Endocrine Society illustrates the principal measures required in order to minimize hypoglycemia (64) . The

Open access

M L M Barreto-Chaves, N Senger, M R Fevereiro, A C Parletta and A P C Takano

( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). Cardiac hypertrophy, driven by TH, is triggered by both direct action on cardiac cells and indirect mechanisms through interaction with other endocrine systems, such as the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin

Open access

Gareth Leng

Introduction Endocrinology is the study of hormones, secreted by endocrine glands in one part of the body, which travel in the blood and have prolonged effects on other parts of the body – effects that are determined by tissue

Open access

Kosmas Daskalakis, Marina Tsoli, Anna Angelousi, Evanthia Kassi, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Denise Kolomodi, Gregory Kaltsas and Anna Koumarianou

included in the study, 74 had sporadic tumours and 8 familial NENs in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) syndrome. Based on primary tumour location, cases were grouped into small intestinal NENs ( n  = 21), pancreatic NENs (PanNENs

Open access

Norra Kwong, Ellen Marqusee, Michael S Gordon, P Reed Larsen, Jeffrey R Garber, Matthew I Kim and Erik K Alexander

pulmonary nodules confirmed persistent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient has been monitored for 2 years, with follow-up testing demonstrating variable thyroglobulin levels (25–40 ng/ml), though without upward trend. Her most recent

Open access

Rolf Jorde and Guri Grimnes

sufficient ( 6 ), whereas a level of 75 nmol/L has been recommended by the Endocrine Society ( 7 ). These recommendations are partly based on calcium absorption, presence of signs of osteomalacia, as well suppression of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) by

Open access

Sandra N Slagter, Robert P van Waateringe, André P van Beek, Melanie M van der Klauw, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel and Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk

, which shows a reversed U-shaped trend with age ( 11 ). It can, therefore, be argued that the defining value for elevated blood pressure used in the revised NCEP-ATPIII definition for MetS (systolic blood pressure ≥130 or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg

Open access

Yiyan Wang, Yaoyao Dong, Yinghui Fang, Yao Lv, Qiqi Zhu, Xiaoheng Li, Qingquan Lian and Ren-Shan Ge

P  < 0.001. Discussion DES is a potent estrogen and it has been associated with disruption of the endocrine axis in several animal species ( 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 ). The mechanism associated with DES-related intrauterine growth

Open access

Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Martin H Keppel, Martin R Grübler, Winfried März and Marlene Pandis

supplemental vitamin D dose of 10–20 µg (400–800 IU) per day ( 109 , 110 ). One major vitamin D guideline for patient care is the ‘Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline’ for evaluation, treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency that supports the