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Open access

Myrian Velasco, Rosa Isela Ortiz-Huidobro, Carlos Larqué, Yuriko Itzel Sánchez-Zamora, José Romo-Yáñez, and Marcia Hiriart

Objective: We assessed the sex-specific differences in the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue, in a MS rat model induced by a high sucrose diet.

Methods: Male, female, and ovariectomized female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in control and high-sucrose diet (HSD) groups, supplemented for 24 weeks with 20% sucrose in the drinking water. At the end, we assessed parameters related to MS, analyzing the effects of the HSD on critical nodes of the insulin signaling pathway in muscle and adipose tissue.

Results: At the end of treatment, HSD groups of both sexes developed obesity, with a 15%, 33% and 23% of body weight gain, in male, female, and OVX groups respectively, compared with controls; mainly related to hypertrophy of peripancreatic and gonadal adipose tissue. They also developed hypertriglyceridemia, and liver steatosis, with the last being worse in the HSD females. Compared to the control groups, HSD rats had higher IL-1β and TNFα levels and insulin resistance. HSD females were more intolerant to glucose than HSD males. Our observations suggest that insulin resistance mechanisms, include an increase in phosphorylated Akt(S473) form in HSD male and female groups, and a decrease in phosphorylated P70S6K1(T389) in the HSD male groups from peripancreatic adipose tissue. While in gonadal adipose tissue the phosphorylated form of Akt decreased in HSD females, but not in HSD males. Finally, HSD groups showed a reduction in p-Akt levels in gastrocnemius muscle.

Conclusion: A high-sucrose diet induces MS and insulin resistance with sex-associated differences and in a tissue-specific manner.

Open access

Jakob Høgild Langdahl, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, John Vissing, Morten Frost, Knud Bonnet Yderstræde, and Per Heden Andersen

muscle is inversely correlated to age of diabetes debut ( 14 ). It is debated whether the impaired glucose metabolism in m.3243A>G carriers is characterized by insulin resistance, insulin secretion defect or a combination. The nuclear gene encoded

Open access

Li Li, Qifa Song, and Xi Yang

Introduction In the past 40 years, a dramatic increase in the overweight and obese population has been seen globally. The potential adverse effects of obesity include insulin resistance and possible insufficient insulin secretion due to the

Open access

Selina Mäkinen, Yen H Nguyen, Paulina Skrobuk, and Heikki A Koistinen

Introduction Excess dietary fat and sedentary lifestyle predispose to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As skeletal muscle accounts for 80% of glucose disposal under insulin-stimulated conditions ( 1 , 2 ), it is an important target

Open access

Leanne Hodson and Fredrik Karpe

hyperinsulinaemia are often said to have ‘insulin resistance’ ( 4 , 5 ). Here we discuss the direct and indirect effects of insulin on intrahepatic processes (e.g. fatty acid synthesis) and systemic processes (e.g. the regulation of fatty acid flux from adipose

Open access

Nese Cinar and Alper Gurlek

ADP, vaspin, and visfatin in the context of thyroid dysfunction and the associated changes in adipose tissue and insulin resistance. The reason for choosing them is the increasing evidence regarding their changes in states of thyroid dysfunction

Open access

Agnieszka Adamska, Aleksandra Maria Polak, Anna Krentowska, Agnieszka Łebkowska, Justyna Hryniewicka, Monika Leśniewska, and Irina Kowalska

dysfunction and characteristic image of the ovaries in the ultrasound ( 2 ). A lot of data indicated that insulin resistance is a key factor in the development of metabolic disturbances in PCOS, for example, obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular

Open access

L Bahler, H J Verberne, E Brakema, R Tepaske, J Booij, J B Hoekstra, and F Holleman

assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR type 1) (fasting insulin (μU/L) × fasting glucose (nmol/L)/22.5) ( 15 ). Secondary outcomes were the differences in effect of bromocriptine on EE (kcal/day) and weight (kg). Statistical analysis Statistical

Open access

Shilpa Lingaiah, Laure Morin-Papunen, Terhi Piltonen, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, and Juha S Tapanainen

several metabolic and cardiovascular health implications. Women with PCOS commonly suffer from chronic anovulation, infertility, hyperandrogenaemia, obesity, dyslipidaemia and low-grade chronic inflammation ( 2 ). Insulin resistance is a common feature of

Open access

Yuka Goto, Yoshie Otsuka, Kenji Ashida, Ayako Nagayama, Nao Hasuzawa, Shimpei Iwata, Kento Hara, Munehisa Tsuruta, Nobuhiko Wada, Seiichi Motomura, Yuji Tajiri, and Masatoshi Nomura

resistance is a major risk factor for the development of macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ( 8 , 9 ). Thus, glucose regulation therapy for the improvement of insulin sensitivity, the avoidance of obesity, and the